SLWZ chapter 7&8 Surface Disinfection and Treatment Room Preparation Key Terms

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Chapter 7 Key Terms Surface Disinfection Instrument Processing

Alcohol

A transparent colorless liquid that is mobile and volatile. Alcohols are organic compounds formed from hydrocarbons by the substitution of hydroxyl radicals for the same number of hydrogen atoms.

Antiseptic

Substances for killing microorganisms on the skin.

Bioburden

Blood, saliva, and other body fluids.

Biofilm

Slime-producing bacterial communities that may also harbor fungi, algae, and protozoa.

Chlorine Dioxide

Effective, rapid-acting environmental surface disinfectant or chemical sterilant.

Disinfection

The process of destroying pathogenic organisms or rendering them inert.

Iodophors

CONTACT - 10 minutes
tuberculocidal

Ortho-Phtalaldehyde (OPA)

CLASSIFICATION - Sterilant
CONTACT TIME - 12 hours
CLASSIFICATION - high level disinfectant
CONTACT TIME - 30 minutes
CLASSIFICATION - sterilant
CONTACT TIME - 3 hours
CLASSIFICATION - high level disinfectant
CONTACT TIME - 5 minutes

Precleaning

Removal of bioburden and other materials before disinfection or sterilization.

Sodium Hypochlorite/Chlorines

CONNTACT - 10 minutes
Tuberculocidal - house hold bleach

Surface Barriers

Fluid-resistant material used to cover surfaces likely to become contaminated.

Synthetic Phenol

CONTACT - 10 minutes
tuberculocidal\
REPARED DAILY.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

A federal agency charged with establishing guidelines and regulations regarding worker safety. These guidelines include storage and disposal of toxic chemicals and hazardous materials and the safety and proper use of clinical and office equipment.

Impressions

An imprint or negative likeness of an object from which a positive reproduction may be made.

Disinfection of Casts

Casts are the most difficult prosthodonitc item to disinfect without causing manged. It is preferable to disinfect the impression so that the resulting cast itself will not have to be disinfected. Casts should be set on their ends to allow drainage and sprayed with an iodophor or chlorine product, rinsed, and allowed to dry.

Microbes

Microorganism. Germs

Phenol-alcohol combinations

CONTACT - 10 min
Tuberculocidal;

Halogens (other)

CONTACT TIME - 5 min
tuberculocidal

Spores

Are not killed during disinfecting procedures. Do not confuse disinfection with sterilization.

Glutaraldehyde

CLASSIFICATION - Sterilant
CLASSIFICATION - High level
CONTACT TIME STERILANT - 6 - 10
CONTACT TIME HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTANT - 20 - 90 minutes

Hydrogen Peroxide

CLASSIFICATION - as a sterilant
CONTACT TIME - 6 hrs
CLASSIFICATION - As High - Level Disinfectant
CONTACT TIME - 30 minutes

Ortho-phthalaldehyde

as a sterilant 12 hours
as a high level disinfectant 20 minutes
- hydrogen peroxide and peractic acid
as a sterilant 3 hours
as a disinfectant 15 min

Autoclave Steam

Temperature 121C (250F), 114kPa
Pressure - 134C (273F), 216 kPa
Exposure Time Temperature - 13 - 30 minutes
Exposure Time Pressure - 3.5 - 12 minutes

Dry Heat Sterilization

DRY HEAT (OVEN TYPE)
TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE - 160C (320F)
EXPOSURE TIME - 60 - 120 minutes
TEMPERATURE - 191C (375F)
EXPOSURE TIME - 12 minutes wrapped
EXPOSURE TIME - 6 minutes unwrapped

Unsaturated chemical vapor

EXPOSURE TIME - 20 minutes

Critical - CDC Classification of Instruments and Procedures

FUNCTION - Touch bone or penetrate soft tissue.
EXAMPLES - Surgical and other instruments used to penetrate soft tissue or bone, including forceps, scalpels, bone chisels, scalers, and burs.
INTRAORAL USE - Yes
RISK OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION - Very high
PROCEDURES - Sterilizaton

Semi-critical Instruments

FUNCTIONS: Touches mucous membranes, but will not touch bone or penetrate soft tissue.
EXAMPLES: Mouth mirrors and amalgam condensers.
INTRA-ORAL USE: Moderate
RISK OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION - Moderate
PROCEDURE - Sterilization or high-level disinfection

Noncritical

FUNCTION: Contact only with the intact skin.
INTRA-ORAL USE: no
EXAMPLES - External dental x-ray head
RISK OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION - Very low or none
PROCEDURE - Basic cleaning

Rubber Dam

Best approach to minimize dental aerosols and spatter from the patient.

Biologic Monitoring

Verifies sterilization by confirming that all spore-forming microorganisms have been destroyed.

Chemical Vapor Sterilization

Instrument for sterilization by means of chemical vapors under heat and pressure

Clean Areas

Place where sterilized instruments, fresh disposable supplies, and prepared trays are stored.

Contaminated Area

Place where contaminated items are brought for per-cleaning.

Dry heat Sterilization

Instrument for sterilization by means of dry heated air.

Forced Air Sterilizer

Also called a rapid heat transfer sterilizers, it circulates hot air throughout the chamber at a high velocity. This action permits a rapid transfer of heat energy from the air to the instruments, reducing the time needed for sterilization.

Holding Solutions

Used for instruments that cannot be cleaned immediately after the procedure. It prevents the drying of blood and debris on the instruments.

Instrument Processing

Seven steps required to prepare contaminated instruments for reuse on the next patient.
1. Transport
2. Cleaning
3. Packaging
4. Sterilization
5. Storage
6. Delivery
7. Quality assurance programs

Process Indicators

Tapes, strips or tabs with heat-sensitive chemicals that change color when exposed to a certain temperature.

Process Integrators

Strips placed into packages that change colors when exposed to a combination of heat temperature and time.

Static Air Sterilizer

Similar to an oven; the heating coils are on the bottom of the chamber, and the hot air rises inside through natural convection. Heat is transferred from the static (non-moving) air to the instruments in about 1 to 2 hours.

Ultrasonic Cleaner

Instrument that loosens and removes debris by sound waves traveling through a liquid.

Hand scrubbing

Least desirable method of cleaning instruments.

Chemical Classification

High Level, Intermediate Level and low

Complex Phenols

CONTACT - 10 minutes
Tuberculocidal

Dual/synergized quaternary ammonium compounds

CONTACT - 6 to 10 minutes
Tuberculocidal

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Govenment agency deals with issues of concern to the environment or public safety that involves air and water pollution and waste management. The EPA is also responsible for the registration of chemical disinfectants.

EPA - cleared Instrument Immersion Disinfect and Dentistry

Chlorine, Complex Phenols, Dual/synergized quaternary ammonium compounds, Iodophors, Phenaol-alcohol combinations and other Halogens

Flash Sterilization

is rapid heat transfer, steam and unsaturated chemical vapor

Sterilization

Total destruction of all microooranisms. 1. Autoclave 2. Cold Sterilaization

Birex

Intermediate - make sure 5 minutes - 10 minutes left on in the treatment room. Make sure you wipe down and counter tops are wet.

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