Science Exam 7

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carnivore

consumers that eat only animals

herbivore

consumers that eat only plants

omnivore

consumers that eat both plants and animals

decomposer

breaks down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem

consumer

an organism that obtains its energy by feeding on other organisms

producer

an organism that can make its own food

food chain

a series of events in which one organism eatsh another and obtains energy

food web

consists of many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem

evolution

the change in a species over time (darwin)

plant cell vs animal cell differences

Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells do not. Animal cells have Lysosomes, plant cells do not.

organelle

carry out specific functions within the cell

cell wall

a rigid layer of nonliving materal that surrounds the cell of plants and some other organisms

cell membrane

located just inside the cell wall and controls what substances come into and out of a cell

cytoplasm

a thick gel-like fluid between the cell membrane and the nucleus

nucleus

control center directing all the cell's activity

mitochondria

"powerhouses" of the cell - they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its function

endoplasmic reticulum

passageways that carry protiens and other materials from one part of the cell to another

ribosomes

factories to produce protiens

Golgi Body

part of an animal cell. receive material from the endoplasmic reticulum and send them to other parts of the cell.

vacuole

part of a plant cell. Sac within the cytoplasm that stores water, food, waste products

chloroplasts

part of plant cell. capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell

lysosomes

part of animal cell. contain chemicals that break down food particles and warn-out cell parts

parts of a microscope

convex lenses, mirror, slide with specimine

diffusion

the main method by which small molecules move accross cell membranes

osmosis

the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane USING CELLULAR ENERGY

passive transport

the movement of DISSOLVED material thorough the cell membrand WITHOUT using cellular energy

photosynthesis

the process by whihc a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food

autotroph

an organism that makes it own food

heterotroph

an organism that cannot make its own food

respiration

process by which cells obtain energy from glucose. during respiration cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.

The Water Cycle

evaporation, condensation, precipatation

evaporation

the process by which molecules of liquid water absorb energy and change to a gas

condensation

the process by which a gas changes into a liquid

precipation

rain, snow, sleet or hail

carbon cycle

producers take in carbon dioxide gas during photosynthesis. they use carbon from the carbon dioxide ot make food molecules. when consumers eat producesr they take in the carbon-contaiing food molecules. when consumers break down these food molecules to obtain energy, they rlease carbon dioxide and water as waste products. when producers and consmers die, decomposers break down their remains and return carbon compounts to the soil. some decomposers also release carbon dioxide as a waste product.

oxygen cycle

producers release oxygwn as a result of photosynthesis. most organisms take in oxygen from the air or water and use it to carry out their life processes,.

sexual reproduction

the process by whihc a new organism deelops from the joining of two sex cells - a male sperm cell and a female egg cell.

asexual reproduction

process by which a single organism produces a new organism identical to itself.

genetic engineering

a process where genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism.

selective breeding

the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation

punnett square

a chart that shows all the possible combination of allels that can result from a genetic cross.

phenotype

an organism's physical appearance

genotype

an organism's genetic makeup

dominant allele

one who's trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

recessive allele

hidden whenever the dominant allele is present

fats

energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Fats form part of the cell membrane. Fatty tisssue protects and supports your internal organs and insulates your body.

proteins

nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Needed for tissue growth and repair.

lipids

energy-rich organic compounds made o f carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Contain more energy than carbohydrates. Cells store energy in lipids for later use.

calories

the amount of energy needed to raise the temperator of one gram of water by one degree Celcius.

infectious disease

a disease that is caused by the presence of a living thing within the body.

AIDS

a disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system.

HIV

the virus that causes AIDS. The only kind of virus known to attack the human immune system directly and destroy T cells.

cancer

abnormal cell division

stimulus

any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react

response

what your body does in reaction to a stimulus

Gregor Mendel

his discoveries about heredity and traits form the foundation of genetics, the science of heredity.

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