fugitive slave act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Dred Scott vs Sanford
1857. Determined that people of African descent, imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendents, wether or not they were slaves, could never be citizens of the United States. Also, that the United States Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories, slaves could not bring a case to court, and that slaves could not be taken from their owners without due process. Superseded by 13th and 14th Amendments.
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Plessy vs Ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Jim Crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
homestead act 1863
• Act granted 160 acres of public land to any settler who lived on the land for five years and improved it of to any settler who paid 1.25 dollars an acre and lived on the land for six months
• Program available to males and unmarried women
• Banza Farms, farms over 1,000 acres become popular
• Didn't have the childhood we have today, because they were put to work at a young age
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
an economic system built on large industries rather than on agriculture or craftsmanship
Needed to obtain and produce these resources and manufactured goods and to maximize profits
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
John D Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Teddy Roosevelt trustbuster
-TR believed in coopration and regulation w/ government and busniess
-TR was anger with Taft for going too far
Meat inspection act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
food and drugs act
an act of the Parliament of Canada regarding the production, import, export, transport across provinces and sale of food, drugs, contraceptive devices and cosmetics (including personal cleaning products such as soap and toothpaste). It was first passed in 1920 and most recently revised in 1985. It attempts to ensure that these products are safe, that their ingredients are disclosed and that drugs are effective and are not sold as food or cosmetics
journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics in order to bring about reform.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
muckraker who targeted the unfair practices of big business. Her articles about the standard oil company led to demands for tighter controls on trust.
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
The canal that joined the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.
What many Americans called Alaska after the purchase of it because they thought of it as a land of icy mountains and frozen fish
world war 1
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
point in history where there was a total ban on alcohol
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936
Franklin D Roosevelt
often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war.
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.
alphabet soup programs
New Deal initiatives nicknamed this because of the many new acts that were abbreviated to acronyms and aimed at helping people get jobs and job training (included the SSA, AAA)
FDR's court packing
FDR wanted to increase Supreme Court size from 9 to 15 members, would choose the new members as like-minded people who would do his work, could control courts, Congress ruled against
world war 2
a war between the Allies (Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherl
invasion of poland
Hitler invaded Poland Sept. 1,1939. After signing the non-aggression pact HItler had a surprise attack, German tanks and troops rumbled across the Polish border at the same time Warsaw was being bombed.
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
cuban missile crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
brown vs board of ed
a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation
Martin luther King Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable