articulation and perception of speech sounds
the sound system of a language
the study of the structure and formation of words
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
a language user's knowledge of words
the study of language meaning
stress, intonation, loudness, pitch level, juncture, speaking rate
the use of language in a social context
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
a variant of a phoneme that does not change meaning
Shifting back and forth between languages in the same conversation.
two words which are pronounced the same way but differ in meaning or spelling or both (e.g. bare and bear)
Aquisition Learning Hypothesis
Acquisition by subconscious process and learning through instruction are two separate processes and learners do both to acquire language.
Natural Order Hypothesis
Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order, irrespective of the language being learned.
an internal editing device which comes into play when there is sufficient time and conscious knowledge to communicate correctly.
Language acquisition is the result of comprehensible language input and not of language production.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Filter that determines how much a person learns in a formal or informal language setting. Comprises affective elements that may block the acquisition process.
Silent Stage Period
Students new to acquiring language are silent until comfortable speaking. May last up to one year.
Common Underlying Proficiency of Languages (CUP)
Explains that in surface languages appear to be different. In deep structures, languages are interdependent.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
Social/conversational language which learners develop approximately within the first two years after initial exposure to new language.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Academic language which learners develop within five to seven years without ESL methods.
Provides many cues for the learner to access information (realia, video, plays, illustrations).
Learner must rely on language to access information (lecture, reading a text, worksheets).
Learner must have enough background knowledge to scaffold new ideas that are academically challenging.
Language required is social and not specialized.