Biology Final--Chapter 18

38 terms by laurenmiceli2

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systematics

group and name

Aristotle

long, descriptive names

taxonomy

naming organisms with 2 words only, usually Latin of Greek

genus

capitalized

species

lower case

binomial nomenclature

two word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus in 18th century

Linnaeus recognized the need for..

universal names

taxon

each level

7 taxons

domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus,species

Three domain system

bacteria, archaea, eukarya

bacteria

unicellular, prokaryotes, contains Eubacteria Kingdom, may or may not need O2, Prokarya: modern

Archaea

ancient bacteria, unicellular, prokaryotes, contains Archaeabacteria Kingdom, most do not need O2

Eukarya

all defined nuclues, contains Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

Old 5 Kingdoms

Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

Modern 6 Kingdoms

Eubacteria, Archaeabacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

Eubacteria

cell walls contain peptidoglycen, contains domain bacteria

Archaeabacteria

very harsh environment, no nucleus, cell wall does not contain peptidoglycen, contains two domains: archaea and bacteria

4 Kingdoms of Eukaryotes

Protist, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

Protists

multicultural or unicellular, autotrophs (plantlike--phytoplankton) or hetero (animallike-- zooplankton), 60000 species, moist environment, Amoeba, Hydra, Paramecium

Fungi

mushroom, yeast, hetero, eat dead/decaying matter, cell wall containing chitin--protein in cell wall, eukaryotes, moist environment, worlds's decomposer, reproduce asexually

Plants

fern, mosses, trees, flowers, nonmobile, cell walls contain cellulose, auto--photosynthesis

Animal

fish bird, reptiles, mammals, no cell walls, hetero, great biodiversity,multicellular, mammals--hair/fur, nurse young, warm blooded

animal classes

mammals, reptiles, amphibians, aves (birds), fish, sea stars (not fish) , arthropods (insects, crabs, spiders), jellyfish, and mollusks

Homo sapien

human

evolutionary classification

grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history, how they evolved instead of how they look

phylogeny

plays a strong role in evolutioary classification, evolutionary relationship among organsims, use DNA

cladogram

diagram that show evolutionary relationships among a group of orgnaisms, using derived characters

derived characters

appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its old member

angiosperm

plants with flowers

genus

group os closely related species; first part of scientific name in binomial nomenclature

family

group or level of organization into which organisms are classifies

order

group of closely related families

class

group of closely related orders

phylum

group of closely related classes

kingdom

largest and most inclusive group of classification

clade

evolutionary branch of a cladogram that includes a single ancestor and all its descendants

monophyletic group

group that consists of a single ancestral species and all its descendants and excludes any organisms that are not descened from the common ancestor

domain

larger, more inclusive taxonomic category than a kingdom

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