System in which a ruler (king or queen) has complete authority over the government without limits on his/her powers.
Political system in which the monarch has supreme power and control over the lives of the people in the country.
toxic pollution that is produced by the burning of fossil fuels. It affects plants, animals, and people who have a respiratory illness.
African National Congress
Abbreviated to the ANC, this group formed in 1912 to work for black' rights in South Africa. This group led the fight against apartheid and continues to encourage independence for the black majority
Age of Exploration
Period from 1400 to 1600 during which European monarchs sent explorers to find new trade routes, resources, and land in Asia, Africa, and the Americas
Economic system that centers on agriculture as the chief source of wealth
Change in the farming method in England during the 1600s that dramatically increased farm production
Agreement between two or more countries that provides their mutual defense or protection.
Traditional African religion; a belief that the spirit dwells in all living and nonliving things
Social scientist who studies the physical characteristics, origins, cultures, and artifacts of human beings.
Prejudice against the Jewish people
(Afrikaans word - apartness) An official policy of strict segregation of the races; practiced in South Africa from 1945 until it was repealed in 1991.
Policy of giving in to the demands of the aggressor to avoid war: policy used by England and France to satisfy Hitler's demands for land during the 1930s
Numbers first developed by mathematicians in Gupta, India, and adapted by most of the Western world (counting 1, 2, 3, etc.)
Social scientist who studies past human life by examining the monuments and relics left by ancient people
Chain or group of islands
Government ruled by nobles or the upper class
Temporary agreement to stop fighting
Instrument that determines latitude by measuring the position of the stars; one of the technological improvements that the Europeans borrowed from the Muslims that contributed to the Age of Exploration
Balance of power
Distribution of military and economic powers among rival nations so that one nation does not have more power than its neighbors or other nations
Balance of trade
Difference in value between a nation's imports and exports over a period of time
Bubonic plague or contagious disease during the 14th century whose death toll is estimated to have exceeded 100 million in Europe, Asia, and Africa
Left-wing majority group of the Russian Socialist Democratic Party under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, which seized control of the government by revolution in November 1917; the group was later called Communists.
Middle class between aristocrats and workers. This term was used by Marx and Engels in the Communist Manifesto to describe the capitalists, or factory owners, who exploit the worker, or the proletariat. In the Middle Ages, the bourgeoisie were members of the merchant class or the townspeople in the city.
Major religion of eastern and central Asia founded in 6th century B.C. and based on the teaching of Siddhartha Guatama, who believed people must reject the material world and follow a philosophy of self-denial and meditation.
Traditional code of the Japanese warrior class (the samurai) during the feudal period; emphasizes loyalty and honor to the local warlord over allegiance to the Emperor
Eastern part of the Roman Empire; existed from 330 A.D. to 1453 A.D.; preserved the rich cultural heritage of the ancient Greeks; saved Roman texts from destruction after the fall of the western part of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D.
A title for the successor to Muhammad as the political and religious leader of Islam.
Elaborate handwriting that Chinese and Arab scholars turned into an art form; characters or symbols represent words or ideas
Economic system in which the means of production and the distribution of goods and wealth are controlled by individuals and operated for profit. Consumers have freedom of choice to buy or not buy goods.
Division of society into four major groups based on occupation or birth; a rigid social system that was characteristic of traditional Hindu Indian society.
belief system based on the teachings of Jesus Christ that began in the Middle East around 2,000 years ago and was rooted in the monotheistic religion of Judaism.
member of a state or country.
Small independent state that consists of a city and the territory surrounding it; associated with Ancient Greece.
Nonviolent or passive resistance; refusal to obey unjust laws that are morally wrong
Advanced form of society characterized by a complex social system, some form of writing, and advances in science and technology.
Extended family unit or groups of families that have a common ancestor or family ties.
name for the period in history that pertains to the artistic style of ancient Greece and Rome; their civilization was at its highest and was considered the Golden Age.
social division of society based on wealth, birth, education, occupation, or race
organized and written set of rules or laws
Period of tension and hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union after 1945 because of their different political and economic systems; worldwide struggle without actual fighting between the two powers; ended in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
To be continued...
To be continued...