Animal Nutrition KSU

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Quiz 1, Test 1

profitability

based on environment, nutrition, genetics, and heard health. All four components need to be balanced to be optimal

consumer purchases

influenced by nutrition's affect on livestock product's characteristics

chicken

consumption has increased dramatically from 1909-2005 because it has been proactive in ways to increase consumption

leaner

chicken and turkey have become ____.

economics

whether or not people spend the money, make diets more ________.

50-80

feed costs represent _____ of total cost of production of livestock operations

decreasing

profits on agricultural products are

technology

to remain competitive, producers must specialize and get new ______. (it will play huge role in agriculture's future

nutrition

impacts 1) types of animal products we produce 2) cost of production

30,000

amount of milk dairy cattle produce per year in pounds

feed efficiency

pounds of feed required for a pound of gain, f/g

6

number of weeks for a broiler (chicken) to reach the market

2.6:1

feed efficiency of the hog market

250-300

poultry should produce ____ eggs per year

companion animals

35.9 billion dollars spent on _____ in 2005 vs 17 billion in 1994

nutrition

sum of all processes by which an organism takes in and assimilates food, including digestion and absorption for promoting growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

maintenance

portion of food nutrients which supports bodily functions which go on whether or not new tissues or products are being formed

growth

increase body size/weight (may/may not include an adjustment for composition)

hyperplasia

increase cell number in prenatal growth

hypertrophy

increase cell size in postnatal growth

absorption

passage of food or nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream and its distribution (villae in small intestines)

metabolism

sum of all biochemical processes that nutrients undergo to furnish energy and build new tissue

anabolism

build up

catabolism

break down

ADG

average daily gain

ADFI

average daily feed intake

F/G

feed efficency, can be improving or decreasing

water

85-45% body weight. Transports Nutrients

intracellular

within cells (muscle)

extracellular

fluids surrounding cells

carbohydrates

sugars, starches, and cellulose. photosynthesis by plants

glucose

fundamental unit of carbohydrates

polysaccharides

repeating glucose units (starches/sugars)

celllulose

most abundant carb and primary plant structural component. Ruminants CAN use it. Nonruminants CAN'T digest it

alpha glucose

glucose nonruminants can digest. hydroxyl group is down

beta glucose

glucose nonruminants can't digest. hydroxyl group is up

proteins

long chains of amino acids

nitrogen (NH2)

proteins contain ______

essential proteins

body cannot produce enough of them to meet daily requirements so must be consumed

lipids

fat, composed of triglyceride

triglycerides

3 fatty acids and glycerol

saturated

no double bonds in fatty acid

unsaturated

at least 1 double bond in fatty acid

insoluble

lipids are ____ in water

protein

lipids link with _____ so it can travel through the body better

14

fatty acids under ___ carbons are short

energy storage

primary function of fat

2.25

fat is ____ times as good as carbs at storing energy

vitamins and minerals

function as cofactors for enzymes and chemical reactions

fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

water soluble vitamins

B vitamins

macrominerals

Ca, P, Mg, K, salt. (high percent in diet)

microminerals

Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Mn, Cr (small percent in diet)

proximate analysis

determines content of major nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract (fat), ash, nitrogen free extract)

six major nutrients in proximate analysis

1) dry matter 2) crude protein 3) crude fiber 4) ether extract (fat) 5) ash 6) nitrogen free extract

dry matter (DM)

sample dry weight divided by sample weight x 100

percent moisture

100-DM

assumptions of dry matter

1) wieght loss during drying is only water
2) no info on dry matter composition
3) most valuable in determining ingredient cost

dry matter intake

number of pounds consumed x %DM

highest percent of nutrients

%nutrient divided by DM= % of nutrient on DM basis

protein

Kjeldahl procedure. actually measure amount of nitrogen and uses it to estimate ______.

assumptions of protein

1) all nitrogen is them
2) they have a constant nitrogen percent
3) no info on availability of nitrogen (digestibility)
4) no info on quality of protein (necessary/not)

Leco Protein Analysis

ignite sample, faster, safer, easier than Kjeldahl, expensive

ether extract

crude fat, need to extract lipid from ingredient

assumptions of ether extract

1) all either soluble material is fat
2) no info on individual fatty acid (long, short, sat, unsat)

crude fiber

analysis is designed to simulate body's natural digestion process. weight of sample loss during burning of ash.

ash

determines mineral content of feedstuff. inorganic material.

assumptions of crude fiber

1) all material is fiber (some stuff could dissolve so would be underestimated
2) no indication on individual fiber

assumptions of ash

no indication of individual mineral content

nitrogen free extract (NFE)

calculations of sugar and starches left over from other analyses. 100- % off all other procedures.

problems with NFE

errors in other analyses show up in nitrogen free extract

limitations of proximate analysis

1) sampling (getting a representative sample not stored to long and not only from certain area of feed
2) no indication of toxic compounds
3) no indication of individual nutrients
4) no indication of nutrient availability (digestible)

permitted analytical variation (PAV)

allowance for accuracy of individual analytical procedures

acid detergent fiber/ neutral detergent fiber (Can Soest Fiber Analysis

tells how much of each fiber there is. distinguishes between cell wall vs. cell contents

forage quality

Van Soest Fiber Analysis's greatest application is in determing ____ (high producing dairy cattle)

NDF

neutral detergent fiber. cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin.
good indicator of voluntary feed intake (higher % eat less)

ADF

acid detergent fiber. cellulose, lignin. indicator of forage digestibility (higher %, less digestibility)

bomb calorimetry

measures energy content by the heat given off

gas chromatography

used to determine fatty acids

atomic absorption

measures individual minerals

high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

measures amino acids

near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

different mollecular bonds reflect and absorb dif wavelengths. needs lots of samples for calibration

problems with NIRS

1) accuracy varies
2) limited types of samples analyzed (good with corn and separate things, bad with a mixed diet)
3) fast

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