Leadership roles in small groups
a. Use team-building skills to help working groups move up the performance curve. (8 characteristics to effective team performance)
b. Participate early and often. Focus on communication quality as well as quantity. Demonstrate your competence. Help build a cohesive unit.
What are the 8 characteristics of effective team performance (leadership roles in small groups)
1. clear and inspiring team goals
2. results oriented team structure
3. competent team members
4. unified commitment
5. a collaborative climate
6. standards of excellence
7. external support and recognition
8. principled leadership
Good Size of Small Groups
What is small group size?
a. A few people engaged in communication interaction over time, usually in face to face settings, who have common goals and norms and have developed a communication pattern for meeting their goals in an interdependent manner.
b. Common purpose or goal, interdependence, mutual influence, ongoing communication, 3-20
What is Group Think?
a. Groupthink is when a group puts unanimous agreement above all other considerations.
b. The tendency to put cohesion above performance, by soliciting input rather than pushing for your own choices.
What is the stage development of groups?
a. Orientation phase: participants uncertain and tentative. Not sure how to tackle group's task or what behavior is accepted. Ambiguous statements and members try not to offend others.
b. Conflict phase: Members not tentative and ambiguous. Expresses strong opinions. Members who support same ideas band together. Disagreement?
c. Emergence phase: group begins to rally around decision. Coalitions formed while social conflicts die out.
d. Reinforcement phase: Consensus develops. Interacts are positive in nature. Tension gone. Group commits itself to fulfilling the decision.
What listening is in a group leadership?
a. Active and Attentive Listening
b. Focus on the content of the message, not the speaker's delivery.
c. Listen for ideas, not just facts.
d. Don't let yourself get distracted.
e. Be open-minded.
f. Use thought speed to your advantage.
The collective level of positive expectations that members have about others and the group as a whole
Rites and Rituals
a. Rituals of passage
b. Rituals of degradation
c. Rites of enhancement
d. Rites of renewal.
e. Rites of conflict reduction
f. Rites of Integration
g. Rites of creation
h. Rites of transition
i. Rites of parting
The power of self-expectancies. Self-fulfilling prophecy. Ex: I believe that I can do it, therefore I will succeed.
Our tendencies to live up to the expectations placed on us. Eg: Patients get better after receiving placebo medication because they believe they will get better.
Ethics in leadership components
1. Moral Sensitivity (recognition)
2. Moral Judgement
3. Moral Motivation
4. Moral Character (implementation)
i. Identifying the existence of ethical problems
ii. Acknowledge that our behavior impacts others
iii. Identify possible courses of action
iv. Determine the consequences of each possible strategy
v. Moral muteness is also a problem
vi. Some leaders are reluctant to use ethical terminology when describing situations
i. Deciding which course of action (identified in the first component) is the right one to follow
ii. Determine what is the right or wrong thing to do
iii. Defining Issues Test (345): researchers have conducted over a thousand studies using this instrument
iv. Results: we can increase our ethical competence
v. Strong link between higher education and reasoned decision making
i. Following through on choices
ii. Desire to do the right thing generally comes into conflict with others values
iii. Increase your moral motivation by:
iv. Creating an ethically rewarding environment
v. Managing your emotions
vi. Positive feelings like happiness, and optimism encourage individuals to follow through
i. Internally oriented people (internals)
ii. Convinced that they have control over their lives and can determine what happens to them
iii. Take personal responsibility for their actions and try to do what's right
iv. Externally oriented people (externals)
v. Believe that what happens in life is outside of their control and is the product of forces like fate or luck
vi. More likely to give in to situational pressures and give up rather than carry on
What are the characteristics of a campaign (8)
1. Pretest messages and identify market segments
2. Expose a large segment of the audience to clear campaign messages.
3. Use the most accesible media for target groups.
4. Use the media to raise awareness
5. Rely on interpersonal communication between social backgrounds.
6. Use high credibility sources.
7. Direct messages at the individual needs
8. Emphasize positive rewards rather than prevention.
Pretest messages and identify market segments: Characteristics of a campaign
i. Organizers of effective campaigns rely on research to help them shape their message.
ii. Doing market research prior to a campaign reveals what audiences currently believe in.
Expose a large segment of the audience to clear campaign messages: Characteristics of a campaign
i. Audiences must be aware of campaign messages before they can act on the information.
ii. In most cases it is important that messages be clear.
Use the most accessible media for target groups: Characteristics of a campaign
i. Use media that are most accessible to the audience.
ii. In some countries few people have access to either television or newspapers.
iii. Due to that the timing is critical and reception from you audience is critical as well. pg. 285
Use the media to raise awareness: Characteristics of a campaign
i. The media is most effective when they are used to provide important information, stimulate conversation, and recruit more people to participate.
ii. Media messages raise awareness and get people talking.
Rely on interpersonal communication between of social backgrounds: Characteristics of a campaign
i. Doing so will lead to and reinforce behavior.
ii. Behavioral change is more likely when the desired behaviors are modeled by others.
iii. Interpersonal channels are more influential in motivating people to act on information.
iv. Opinion Leaders: They convince others to adopt new products, techniques, or ideas.
Use high credibility sources: Characteristics of a campaign
i. Successful campaigns use highly credible representatives.
ii. An example is an actor that promotes AIDS prevention as a public service opposed to being paid for promoting a product.
Direct messages at the individual needs: Characteristics of a campaign
i. Audiences are influenced by messages aimed at their personal needs.
Emphasize positive rewards rather than prevention: Characteristics of a campaign
i. It is good to emphasize the immediate positive rewards that come from adopting a value, belief, or behavior.
What are the different stages of PERSUASIVE campaigns? (6)
a. Situation Analysis
d. Prepare Budget
What is a Collaborative leader?
a. Collaborative leaders focus on the process of decision-making rather than on any particular outcome (p.289).
b. They believe that diverse groups will generate reasonable solutions if interested parties work together in constructive ways (p.289).
c. Collaborative leaders have little formal power but function as "first among equals" who encourage their peers to take ownership in the collaborative process (p.289).
d. Collaborative leaders convene the discussions, help the group reach agreement, and work with other participants to implement the solution (p.290).
How to effectively deliver a speech
1. careful pre speech planning
2. clear organization
3. clear, vidid, and appropriate language
4. extensive rehearsal
5. delivery that appears natural and creates a sense of immediacy
6. skillful anticipation and response to questions after presentation.
Cultures in high context pg. 302
Context Cultures: Japan, China, and South Korea
i. Most of the information about the meaning of a message is contained in the context or setting. Group members assume that they share common meanings and prefer indirect or covert messages that rely heavily on nonverbal codes.
Cultures in low context pg. 302
c. Low Context Cultures: Germany and Great Britain
i. Much more meaning is embedded in the words that make up the verbal message, and speakers are more direct.
i. Masculine Cultures: Assertive, decisive, competitive, ambitious, and dominant. Concerned with material success. Women (weaker sex) encouraged to serve.
1. Ex: Japan, Austria, Venezuela, and Italy
ii. Feminine Cultures: Sex roles overlap. Neither sex is expected to be competitive, ambitious, or caring at all times. Stress intuition, interdependence, and concern; there is respect for the small, weak, and slow.
1. Ex: Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, and Denmark
the attitude that regards one's own culture as the measure by which all others should be judged.
Ultimate goal of recognizing and responding to cultural variations. Refers to the production of an end product that is greater than the sume of its park
Benefits of Diversity
a. Cost savings
b. Resource acquisition and utilization
c. Market share
d. Better decision making
e. Greater innovation
Challenges of Diversity
a. Information Management
a leadership model that puts the concerns of followers first (Robert Greenleaf)
Who coined the term servant leadership
The 5 principles that serve as the foundation for Servant Leadership (with definitions/examples of each)
i. Concern for people (extension of altruism)
1. Healthy societies and organizations care for their members
1. They act on behalf of followers and societies
iii. Equity or Justice
1. Concerted effort to create a level playing field by distributing resources fairly
1. Leaders have certain responsibilities to their followers
2. According to DePree, followers can expect the following rights from their leaders (356)
3. Right to be needed, involved, a covenantal relationship, to understand, to affect one's own destiny, to be accountable, to appeal, and to make a commitment
1. Ethical choices should be based on character rather than on codes of conduct
2. They create a positive ethical climate for followers by striving to be trusting, insightful, open to new ideas, strong, and courageous
Types of Courages of Followers
a. The courage to assume responsibility
i. Take responsibility for yourself and the organization
b. The courage to serve
i. Serve your leaders through hard work
c. The courage to challenge
i. Challenge leaders when they engage in destructive behaviors
d. The courage to participate in transformation
i. Help leaders overcome destructive patterns and habits
e. The courage to leave
i. Leave when a leader's behaviors clash with important values or when the leader degrades or endangers others
3 stages of crisis
2. Crisis Event
Leadership roles in pre-crisis event (4)
1. Recognize Danger Signs
2. Looking for trouble
a. Wheel of crisis
b. Internal assassins
c. Mixed metaphors
d. Spy games
3. Create a crisis management plan (p.409)
4. Establish credibility
Leadership roles in Crisis event
i. Initiate action and coordinate activities
ii. Act as a spokesperson
iii. Engage in vigilant decision making
Leadership roles in post-crisis
i. Denial and scapegoating
ii. Evading responsibility
iii. Reducing offensiveness
1. Bolstering, minimization,
attacking the acusers, compensation
iv. Corrective action
vi. Learn from the Experience
1. Retrospective sensemaking
2. Reconsidering structure
3. Vicarious learning
vii. Promote healing
1. Corrective action
2. Address vulnerabilities
3. Reduce stress
4. Promote recovery
emphasize that the needs and goals of the individual and his or her immediate family are most important.
emphasize group identity. Individuals do not function as independent agents; rather, they define themselves and make decisions on the basis of their connection to an extended family, trive, clan, or organization.
Long term orientation
Encourage norms and behaviors that lead to future rewards. Members sacrifice immediate gratification for long-term benefits. They put high value on persistence and perseverance; spend sparingly, and save a lot.
Short term orientation
focus on the past and the present, respecting tradition and expecting quick results. Members of these groups put much less importance on persistence, spend freely, and have lower savings rates.
What is certainty avoidance?
a. The extent to which members of an organization or a society strive to avoid uncertainty by relying on established social norms, rituals, and bureaucratic practices.
b. 4th dimension measures 1-the extent to which people feel uncomfortable in unstructured or unpredictable situations, 2-the lengths to which they will go to avoid ambiguity by following strict codes of behavior or by believing in absolute truths.
c. Members of high uncertainty avoidance cultures view uncertainty as a threat, are less tolerant, face high stress, seek security, believe in written rules and regulations, and readily accept directives from experts and those in authority.