theorist that developed a series of stages in which an individual passes during cognitive development.
cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes languages and imagination (in addition to the senses and motor skills of infancy), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible
The tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects.
Piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective
focus on appearance
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent.
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be
the quality of being irreversible (once done it cannot be changed)
limitations of piaget's research
just observing may have led him to underestimate what kids can do
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
children as apprentices
cognitive development is embedded in a social context
curious and observant
apprentice in thinking
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society
theorist focused on the social world of people when explaining cognitive development.
the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations
Vygotsky's idea , temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
"zone of proximan development"- a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skilled peers
the internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud)
a function of speech by which a person's cognitive skills are refined and extended through both formal instruction and casual conversation.
the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories (where baby's come from)
theory of mind
An awareness that other people's thoughts are different from your own
maturation of the brain's prefrontal cortex appears to be the reason for the age-related advance in children
24 month (short sentences and limited vocab) 6 year old (understand and discuss almost anything)
a time when a certain development must happen if it is ever to happen
a limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned
The process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word.
after learning a word children use it to describe other objects in the same category
Occurs when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply. Example: "I hitted the ball."
the basic language learning