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Pectoralis Major

O: Clavicular Head
I: Humerus
A: Adduction/ medial rotation/clavicular flex-ion/ extension of Arm

Pectoralis Minor

O: Rib 3-5
I: scapula
A: Stabilize-Protraction- lateral rotation of scapula

Trapezius

O:
I:
A:

Rhmboid Major

Rhomboid Minor

Latissimus Dorsi

A: adduction/ extension medial rotation of arm
I: Humerus
o: sacral/lumbar, spine/ilium of throaclumbar fascia)
lower ribs, t6-12

Deltoid

Action:
• Anterior part: flexion and medial rotation of arm
• Lateral part: abduction of arm
• Posterior part: extension and lateral rotation of arm

Origin:
• Anterior part: clavicle (lateral 1/3)
• Lateral part: scapula (acromion)
• Posterior part: scapula (spine)

Insertion:
• Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)

Serratus anterior

Action:
• Protraction (abduction) of scapula
• Medial rotation of scapula (directs glenoid cavity superiorly)
• Stabilizes scapula (holds it against thoracic wall)

Origin:
• Ribs 1-8

Insertion:
• Scapula (medial border)

Subscapularis

Action:
• Medial rotation of arm
• Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity

Origin:
• Scapula (subscapular fossa)

Insertion:
• Humerus (lesser tubercle)

Suprasinatus

Action:
• Abduction of arm
• Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity

Origin:
• Scapula (supraspinous fossa)

Insertion:
• Humerus (greater tubercle)

Infraspinatous

Action:
• Lateral rotation of arm
• Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity

Origin:
• Scapula (infraspinous fossa)

Insertion:
• Humerus (greater tubercle)

Sternocleidomastoid

Action:
• Unilateral: rotation of head so face turns to opposite side
• Bilateral: flexion of head
Origin:
• Clavicle (medial)
• Sternum (manubrium)
Insertion:
• Mastoid process of temporal bone
• Lateral one-half of superior nuchal line of temporal bone

Buccinator

Action:
• Compression of cheek (e.g., inflating a balloon; playing a wind musical instrument)

Origin:
• Pterygomandibular raphe
• Maxilla (lateral aspect)
• Mandible (lateral body)

Insertion:
• Blends with muscles at angle of mouth

Orbicularis Occuli

Orbicularis oris

Masseter

Action:
• Elevation of mandible (e.g., closing mouth)
• Protraction of mandible

Origin:
• Zygomatic arch

Insertion:
• Mandible (external surface of angle and ramus)

Illiocostalis

Action:• Unilateral: lateral flexion of vertebral column• Bilateral: extension of vertebral column• Depression of ribs
Origin:• Common origin and ribs insertion:• Ribs• Transverse processes (cervical)

LONGISSIMUS

Action:• Unilateral: lateral flexion of vertebral column and rotation of head to same side• Bilateral: extension of vertebral column and head• Depresses ribs Origin:• Iliac crest• Dorsal sacrum• Sacral and lumbar spinous processes• Supraspinous ligament
Insertion:• Transverse processes (cervical and thoracic), ribs, and mastoid process

Spianlis

Action:
• Unilateral: lateral flexion of vertebral column
• Bilateral: extension of vertebral column

Origin:
• Spinous processes and nuchal ligament

Insertion:
• Spinous processes (cervical and thoracic) and occipital bone

Temporalis

A: elevation & retraction of mandible
O: Temporal bone
I: madible

External intercostals

Action:• Muscle of respiration• Elevation of ribs during inhalation to increase transverse dimensions (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral) of thoracic cavity
Origin:• Ribs 1-11 (inferior border)
Insertion:• Ribs 2-12 (superior border)

Internal intercostals

Action:
• Muscle of respiration
• Depression of ribs during forced exhalation to decrease transverse dimensions (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral) of thoracic cavity

Origin:
• Ribs 1-11 (inferior border)

Insertion:
• Ribs 2-12 (superior border)

Diaphram

Action:
• Dome of diaphragm flattens during inspiration
• Contraction increases vertical dimension of thoracic cavity

Origin:
• Sternal part (not always present): xiphoid process
• Costal part: ribs 5-10 and their costal cartilages
• Lumbar part: arcuate ligaments and L1-3 vertebral bodies

Insertion:
• Central tendon

Vastus Lateralis

Action:
• Extension of leg

Origin:
• Femur (lateral side of greater trochanter and linea aspera)

Insertion:
• Patella (via a common quadriceps tendon)

Vastus Imtermedius

Action:
• Extension of leg

Origin:
• Femur (anterolateral surface of shaft)

Insertion:
• Patella (via a common quadriceps tendon)

Sartorius

Action:
• Flexion of thigh
• Lateral rotation of thigh
• Abduction of thigh
• Flexion of leg

Origin:
• Ilium (anterior superior iliac spine)

Insertion:

Hamstring

Action:
• Extension of thigh
• Flexion of leg

Origin:
• Ischium (tuberosity)

Insertion:
• Fibula (head): long head of biceps brachii
• Tibia (proximal, medial shaft): semitendinosus
• Tibia (medial condyle): semimembranosus
• Femur (adductor tubercle): adductor magnu

Biceps Femoris

Action:
• Extension of thigh (long head)
• Flexion of leg

Origin:
• Long head: ischium (tuberosity)
• Short head: femur (linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge, lateral intermuscular septum)

Insertion:
• Fibula (head)
• Tibia (lateral condyle)

Semitendonosis

--Action:
• Flexion of leg• Extension of thigh
--Origin:
• Ischium (tuberosity)
--Insertion:
• Tibia (proximal medial shaft)

Semimembranosis

--Action:
• Flexion of leg• Extension of thigh
--Origin:
• Ischium (tuberosity)
--Insertion:• Tibia (medial condyle)

Tibialis Anterior

ction:
• Dorsiflexion of foot
• Inversion of foot

Origin:
• Tibia (anterior lateral shaft)
• Interosseous membrane

Insertion:
• Metatarsal I
• Medial cuneiform

Gastrocnemius

Action:
• Plantar flexion of foot
• Flexion of leg

Origin:
• Medial belly: femur (medial condyle)
• Lateral belly: femur (lateral condyle)

Insertion:
• Calcaneus

Solecus

Action:
• Plantar flexion of foot

Origin:
• Tibia (proximal posterior shaft)
• Fibula (proximal posterior shaft)

Insertion:
• Calcaneus (through calcaneal te

Teres Minor

Action:
• Medial rotation of arm
• Adduction of arm
• Extension of arm

Origin:
• Scapula (inferior angle and lateral border)

Insertion:
• Humerus (medial lip of intertubercular sulcus)

Teres Major

Action:
• Medial rotation of arm
• Adduction of arm
• Extension of arm

Origin:
• Scapula (inferior angle and lateral border)

Insertion:
• Humerus (medial lip of intertubercular sulcus)

Triceps Brachi

Action:
• Extension of forearm
• Extension of arm (long head)

Origin:
• Long head: scapula (infraglenoid tubercle)
• Medial and lateral heads: humerus (shaft)

Insertion:
• Ulna (olecranon)

Long head

...

medial head

...

lateral head

...

biceps brachii

...

long head

...

short head

...

Brachialis

...

coracobrachialis

...

brachioradialis

...

Flexor Carpi Radialis

...

Flexor Carpri Ulnaris

...

Extensor Carpi Radialis

Action:
• Extension of wrist
• Abduction of hand (lateral deviation)

Origin:
• Humerus (lateral epicondyle)

Insertion:
• Metacarpal III (base)

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