8th Grade Social Studies Review

113 terms by DannyTheMan 

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Primary Source

original materials

Secondary Source

a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere

Industrialization

time period when technology grew

Cornelius Vanderbilt

railroad robber baron

Collective Bargaining

the process of negotiation between laborers and management

Monopoly

when a company or person controls most of the business in the industry

assembly line

Created mass production by assembling products along a moving conveyor belt

Capitalism

when private citizens control the means of production

labor union

created during the Industrial Revolution to provide workers with better working conditions

John D. Rockefeller

a philanthropist who had a monopoly in the Oil industry

Haymarket Riot

led to a very low opinion of labor unions after a labor strike turned violent

Strike

when a worker refuses to go to work until an agreement is reached with management

Triangle Fire

tragic event which led to an increased awareness of poor working conditions

Andrew Carnegie

steal king due to his monopoly industry

Robber-baron

business to business who used questionable tactics to make money

Captain of Industry

refers to business leaders who helped America modernize and strengthen the economy

Philanthropist

person who gives money to charity

Sweatshop

workplace where people labor long hours in poor conditions for low pay

Corporation

sells stock to make money

Trust

group of corporations run by a single board of directors

Stock

shares of ownership

Laissez- fairre

little or no government interference in business an the economy

Free- enterprise

businesses are owned by private citizens

capitalism

business people decide what the prices are, what to sell, and how much to sell

Social Darwinism

the belief that the strongest or smartest business people rise to the top. Weaker ones are taken over. " Survival of the Fittest"

Patent

a workplace with long hours, poor conditions and low pay

Transcontinental Railroad

transportation that stretches from coast to coast

Subsidy

money given as aid or a piece of land given by the government

Reservations

land set aside for Indians

Sod House

new kin of shelter on the prairie

Sod-buster

farmers on the plains

inflation

prices increase

Immigrant

one who moves to another country for the purposes of settling there

Ellis island

place in New York Harbor where many European immigrants came when arriving in the U.S.

New Colossus

poem by Emma Lazarus inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty

Chines Exclusion Act

prohibited Chinese workers from coming to the U.S. for 61 years

Quota

a limitation on the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S.

Tenement

an overcrowded apartment building where poor immigrant families lived upon arriving in U.S.

Urban

also known as the city an area with dense population

Suburban

an area on the outskirts of a city with a less dense population

Rural

an area with a very low population which is often characterized by countryside

Push Factor

something that forces one to leave their home country

Pull Factor

something that draws one to a new nation

Angel Island

place in California where many Asian immigrants were processed upon arriving to the U.S.

Ghetto

overcrowded neighborhoods where poor immigrants lived

Nativism

the belief that no new immigrants should be allowed into the country

Illegal Alien

someone in the country illegally

American Dream

the idea that life would be a lot better in America

Progressive Era

1898-1917- the age of reform- at time when reformers wanted to fix the social, political, economic problems in the country

Spoils System

giving government jobs as a reward for political support

Civil Service

government jobs given to people scoring highest on exams

Interstate Commerce

business that goes across state lines

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

law prohibiting business from destroying competition

Political boss

powerful politicians who were corrupt

Primary

voters select the candidate for their political party

Initiative

voters can suggest bills in the state legislature

Referendum

voters can vote directly on bills

Recall

voters can remove elected officials from office

Graduated Income Tax

wealthy pay taxes at a higher rate than the poor or middle class

Square Deal

provide equal opportunities for all Americans to succeed

Trustbuster

person who wanted to destroy all trusts

Conservation

protection of natural resources

16th Amendment

progressive income tax
financed reforms
wealthy pays higher taxes

17th Amendment

direct election of senators

18th Amendment

prohibition banned

19th Amendment

women's suffrage right to vote

Temperance

to ban alcohol

Suffrage

movement of women to get the right to vote

NAACP

promotes racial equality

Self-Interest

when one acts our to selfish reasons when practicing imperialism

idealism

to help another country out of concern for the people

isolationism

non-involvement in foreign affairs

Neutrality

not choosing sides in a foreign conflict

Monroe Doctrine

protect trade and investment in Latin America

Manifest Destiny

1800's belief that Americans had the right to spread across the continent

Imperialism

when stronger countries dominate the affairs of weaker countries

Empire

the US ha create one during the late 1800's to early 1900's by seeking to fulfill our Manifest Destiny

Expansionism

when the US began expanding our borders overseas

Yellow Journalism

exaggerate news stories use to influence public opinion

The USS Maine

US battleship that exploded off of the coast of Cuba in 1898

Imperialist

one who believes it is morally wrong to control the affairs of another nation

Anti-Imperialist

one who believes in stronger nations dominated the political and economic affairs of weaker nations

Annex

to make a piece of land part of a country

Dollar Diplomacy

known as " dollars or bullets" it was president Taft's way of dealing with Latin America through investment not force

Open Door Policy

Allowed the US to trade more freely with China

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

German policy to torpedo any ship neutral or war relate that came near German Waters

Archduke of Austria-Hungary

assassinated in 1914 by a Serbian nationalist this was said to be the immediate cause of WW1

Nationalism

a strong feeling of pride of devotion to one's country

Zimmerman Telegram

a note sent by Germany to Mexico asking Mexico to join Germany if the US enters WW1

Propaganda

used during WW1 to persuade each side to join the war effort

Triple Entente

consisted of Britain, France an Russia at the start of WW1 in 1914

Triple Alliance

consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary an Italy at the start of WW1 in 1914

Preparedness

policy advocated by Wilson due to Germany's continued sinking of neutral ships

Fourteen Points

Woodrow Wilson's plan for peace at the end of WW1

League of Nations

a general alliance of nations proposed by Wilson to promote peace and the reason the US refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles

Lusitania

sunk off the coast of Ireland in 1915 by Germany

Flappers

Women who broke from traditional roles in the 1920's regarding fashion and behavior

Speakeasies

illegal bars where people secretly went during the 1920's to drink

Organized Crime

flourished during the 1920s due to gangsters such as Al Capone

Scopes Trial

a biology teacher put on trial for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in public schools

Sacco an Vanzetti

Italian immigrants put on trail for robbery an murder demonstrated intolerance in the 1920s

Red Scare

an excessive irrational fear that communism was taking over the US

Installment Buying

known as Buy Now Pay Later, this method of purchasing often led to consumer debt

Buying on margin

buying stock with a down payment and borrowing the rest of the money

Truman Doctrine

statement that said the US will protect any nation threatened by communist aggression

Marshall Plan

allowed the US to help rebuild the economies of Western Europe after WW2

Berlin Airlift

US mission to deliver supplies and food to West Berlin after Stalin's blockade

NATO

alliance made in 1949 of Western European nations and the US

Warsaw Pact

alliance made in 1955 of eastern European nations an the Soviet Union

Senator J. McCarthy

led the second Red Scare in the US by falsely accusing Americans of being communist

Mao Tse- Tung

communist leader of mainland China in 1949

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

statement which allowed the US to stop armed attacks or aggression during the Vietnam War

General MacArthur

led UN forces in the Korean War until fired by President Truman

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