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Indicator Species

species that indicate or provide a sign of the ecosystem's quality

eutrophication

to process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients that stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life --> depletion of dissolved oxygen

Bio magnification

the way that pollutants move throughout an ecosystem (i.e predator eating prey that contains a pollutant, dolphins and mercury)

sustainability

practice in which natural resources are used and managed in a way that meets the current needs without hurting future generations (i.e global fisheries)

umbrella species

A surrogate species selected with the assumption that protection of its habitat will serve as an "umbrella" to protect many other species; often a species with large or specialized habitat requirements or which is easy to count.

what is smog?

type of air pollution caused by sunlight interacting with pollutants made by fossil fuel emmisions

what is ground level ozone?

NO2 produced in fossil fuel combustions reacts with O2 to create O3 (ozone) --> causes asthma, emphysema

what is acid rain?

produced when pollutants in the water cycle cause pH to drop below normal levels

explain the greenhouse effect

earths atmosphere traps solar radiation --> caused by presence of gases (co2, H20, vapor) --> allow incoming light to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth's surface

give examples of evidence of climate change

sea levels rising, global temperature rising, icecaps melting, flowers blooming earlier, animals migrating later

albedo

the fraction of the total sunlight striking a surface that gets reflected from that surface (albedo that is high, near 1, is very bright)

positive feedback

A produces more B, which produces more A

negative feedback

A produces B, which stops or lowers the production of A

what is the purpose of negative feedback?

to maintain stability (homeostasis)

what are the storage polysacharides in animals?

glycogen

what are the storage polysaccharides in plants?

starch (amylose)

what are the structural polysacharides in plants>

cellulose

what are the structural polysacharides in animals?

chitin

dehydration synthesis

take out water to join two sugar molecules, makes it bigger

hydrolysis

to split water, makes big sugars smaller

4 stages of the water cycle

transpiration, evaporation, condensation, evaporation

explain the carbon cycle

plants acquire co2 through their leaves --> photosynthesis --> co2 returned through respiration --> decomposition recycles carbon to the soil and back to the environment

explain the nitrogen cycle

most animals cannot get nitrogen on their own, must get it from plants --> animals eat these plants and incorporate them into their body

photosynthesis equation

6CO2+H20+light --> C6H1206

respiration equation

C6H12O6-->CO2+H2O

where is light energy converted into ATP?

thylakoid

where does respiration happen?

mitochondria

how do prokaryotic cells divide?

binary fission

how many steps are in binary fission? what are they?

2, DNA replicates, cell splits

chromosomes

super coiled DNA

chromatin

loose spaghetti like DNA

chromatid

half of a chromosome

what are the phases of the cell cycle?

Growth 1, Synthesis, Growth 2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis

mitosis

type of cell division that results in two daughter cells, each the same type as the parent nucleus (occurs in body cells only)

interphase

DNA replicates, prepares for division

prophase

DNA supercoils into chromosomes

metaphase

chromosomes line up along metaphase plate

anaphase

centromeres are pulled apart

telophase

cleavage furrow, 2 new daughter cells

somatic cells

body cells

gametes

sex cells

autosomes

all chromosomes except sex chromosomes

purpose of a karyotype

to determine the chromosomes in a cell

how is a kariotype organized?

largest to smallest, matched up homologous pairs by size and bindings

non disjunction

chromosomes fail to separate during anaphase

what is the result of non disjunction?

aneuploidy

aneuploidy

having more or less than 23 pairs of chromosomes

meiosis

division of sex cells

end result of meiosis

4 haploid daughter cells

4 phases of meiosis

prophase I/II, metaphase I/II, anaphase I/II, telophase I/II

tetrad

2 homologous pairs of chromosomes, one from mom, one from dad

independent assortment

orientation of homologous pairs at poles is random --> leads to variation

spermatogenesis

production of sperm

oogenesis

production of egg (1 egg, 3 polar bodies [not useful])

fertilization (order of development)

zygote, embryo, fetus, baby

differentiation

process by which cells are directed to specialize into different tissues (stem cells to kidney cells, etc)

structure of DNA

sides are alternating sugar and phosphate units, rungs of the ladder are purine and pyrimadines held together by hydrogen bonds

how do the base pairs match up?

adenine to thymine, guanine to cytosine

backbone of DNA

phosphate, negatively charged

nucleotides

3 components: 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, nitrogenous base

purines

adenine, guanine (double ringed [big word, short structure])

pyrimadine

thymine, cytosine (single ringed)

DNA replication

double helix unzips (helicase) --> replication fork --> pair new nucleotides to old ones --> DNA polymerase move along and pair

semi conservative (DNA replication)

have one old strand and one new strand of DNA

Mendel's Laws

Law of Segregation (genes segregate from eachother during egg or sperm formation), Law of independent assortment (homologous pairs are oriented randomly)

3 types of proteins

structural, signaling, enzymatic

what do enzymes do?

control and create chemical reactions

proteins are mad up of...

amino acids

amino acid

organic molecule, some humans can make, others they need through consumption (essential amino acids)

a _____ is chain of _______

protein, amino acids

amino acids held together by ____

peptide bonds

DNA is the blueprint, _________ is the product

proteins

central dogma

states that info flows in one direction (DNA --> RNA --> ribosomes)

3 processes of protein synthesis

replication, transcription, translation

transcription

DNA to RNA (same as matching, except T replaced with U)

types of RNA
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA

messenger RNA (carries info to ribosome)
transfer RNA (carries amino acids to ribosome)
ribosomal RNA (composes parts of the ribosome)

translation

instructions in mRNA to produce protein
start with start codon, end with 3 stop codons in case of a mutation

protein folding

after polypeptide chains are released from the ribosome they fold into more complex structures

mutation

change in organism's DNA

point mutations

result in a new codon

silent mutation

result in the same amino acid

missense mutation

result in a different amino acid

nonsense mutation

result in a stop codon

cancer is a result of

accumulated mutations that affect genes that control cell division

if the mutation occurs in _______ cells, it will not be passed on

body

Lamark's Theory of Evolution

characteristics can change over time (giraffes had short necks, since they had to stretch to get food they got longer necks)

Darwin and Wallace

natural selection (giraffes with different sized necks, the ones with longer necks survived -- pass on genes)

genetic drift

gene frequencies in a population are sometimes altered by chance

examples of evolution

peppered moths, evolution of bacteria, fossils, artifical selection

evidence of evolution

fossils, vestigial structures (appendix), homologous structures, embryonic development, similarity of genetic code

misconceptions of evolution

how can evolution create complex structures like the eye, isn't evolution still argued about, is my ancestor an ape

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