History 1301 exam 2

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what was the death rate of the revolutionary was compared to other wars in U.S. history?

The revolutionary war had the highest death rate in U.S. history besides the civil war.

Who did King George III appoint new chief minister in 1760 and how was he connected to the king?

the Earl of Bute, king george relied on Bute but he put his trust in the wrong place and Bute soon resigned.

virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

John Locke

english philosopher who wrote many essays on the government. Believed all humans had the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

public virtue

patriotism; the willingness of independent households to value the common good above their own personal interests and to even die for their country

pontiacs rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

sugar act of 1764

Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.

stamp act of 1765

Was issued in order to raise revenues to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angrily aroused and felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as Englishmen.

Patrick Henry's 5 resolutions

Wrote 5 resolutions protesting the Stamp Acts in House of Burgesses, said that Virginia should tax themselves, and the stamp act was unconstitutional, it was printed in a journal and made Virginia seem radical

stamp act congress 1765

met in New York City to protest the Stamp Act; nine of the thirteen colonies petitioned the king and organized a boycott that eventually helped to force the repeal of the tax. This meeting and action was a major step to colonial unity and resistance of British authority.

sons of liberty

A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest

boston massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

John Adams

Lawyer who defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial. He believed in "innocent until proven guilty." In spite of these actions, he supported colonial independence.

townshend revenue acts

Acts of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposing duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass.

boston tea party

Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard.

coercive acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

Paul revere

American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)

first continental congress

The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

second continental congress

It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.

Prohibitory act

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Common sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

Battle at trenton

on december 26, 1776, washington and his men surprised and captured a thousand hessians who were sleeping due to the events after their christmas celebration

the battle of Yorktown

This battle took place in 1781. This was the final battle of the revolution. Cornwallis and his troops marched into Virginia, and were surrounded by the french navy and wahsington's troops. Cornwallis was forced to surrender and this final victory granted the colonists their freedom.

roles of women and children in the continental army

The women and children would pick up after the soldiers and make meals and take care of the dead and wounded; the got half the pay and food as the men in the army and had to walk behind the troops

the treaty of amity and commerce

This treaty established America as an independent State from Britain by France and allowed for trade, including extra trade provisions

the treaty of alliance

This treaty established that if France was to enter the war, both countries would fight until America was independent and neither country would conclude a truce without the other and France promised to allow America to gain all lands in America

the banditti

the banditti did not want to be regular soldiers because they wanted to rape and steal as they pleased without consequences

Battle at kings mountain

backwoodsmen found british soldiers who had wandered off from their group and massacred them all. made corwallis retreat his men

6 terms of the Paris treaty

american independence recognized, all territory east of mississippi was ceded to the U.S., americans allowed joint use of mississippi and allowed to fish off canadian coasts, no lawful impediments of debts, british were to withdraw from all outposts in the northwest

prudence, virtue, and economy not to be substituted for luxury, prodigality, or profligacy

to be a good person and not flaunt of uselessly spend your money

post-revolution political parties

federalists and republicans

report on manufactures

This document, written by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1791, promoted the industrialization of the United States and advocated strong protective tariffs to protect infant industry.

jays treaty

agreement negotiated by John Jay to work out problems between Britain and the US over the Northwestern lands, British seizure of US ships, and debts owed to the British

treaty of greenville

This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.

whisky rebellion

1791 congress put a tax on all whisky made and sold in u,s, revolt tested strength of government, farmers grew corn to make whisky, refused to pay tax on it, 1794 western pa, farmers rebelled on tax collector by burning down his home, large angry mob marched through Pittsburgh, washington sent 13,000 troops stop rebellion, people ran away when heard the news.

xyz affair

1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.

alien and sedition acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

kentucky and virginia resolutions

These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts

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