Met1010 test 2

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Dew is most likely to form on

nights that are clear and calm than on nights that are cloudy and windy

The name given to a liquid drop of dew that freezes when the air temperature drops below freezing is

frozen dew

The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of

radiational cooling

For frozen dew to form,

all of the above, the air temperature needs to drop to freezing or below

Suppose it is a winter night and at about 10 p.m., the air cools to the dew-point temperature and a thick radiation fog develops. If the air continues to cool during the night, in 5 hours the dew point temperature will probably

decrease as the air becomes drier

Particles that serve as surfaces on which water vapor may condense are called

condensation nuclei

Frost forms when:

all of the above, when the dew point temperature is at or below freezing

On a humid day, ________causes salty potato chips left outside in an uncovered bowl to turn soggy.

the attraction of water by hygroscopic condensation nuclei

Frost typically forms on the inside of a windowpane (rather than the outside) because:

there is more water vapor touching the inside of the pane

Condensation nuclei may be:

particles of dust

Condensation nuclei are important in the atmosphere because:

without them, condensation would not occur easily in atmosphere

Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 00 percent without producing fog?

there are no condensation nuclei present

Wet haze forms when the relative humidity is:

less than 100%

On a cold winter morning, the air near the surface is full of smoke particles. If fog should form in this air, it will probably ____ that forms in cleaner air.

be thicker than fog

High fog is also called

stratus

When radiation fog "burns off", the fog tends to dissipate:

from bottom up

When fog "burns off," it:

evaporates

On a clear night, the minimum temperature drops to 34°F. The following night, fog forms early in the evening. It is a good bet the minimum temperature will not be as low because of the:

enhancement of the greenhouse effect by the fog cloud

Winter fog in the Central Valley region of California is mainly due to:

radiational cooling

On a cold, winter morning, the most likely place for radiation fog to form is:

in a valley

The fog that forms along the Pacific coastline of North America is mainly which type?

advection fog

Fog that forms off the coast of Newfoundland is mainly a form of

advection fog

Along an irregular coastline, advection fog is more likely to form at the headlands than at the beaches because of the ____ surface winds and ____ air.

converging; rising

If fog is forming at Denver, Colorado, and the wind is blowing from the east, then the fog is most likely

upslope fog

Exhaled breath from your mouth can condense when

it is very cold

When you see your breath on a cold morning, the air temperature

can be above or below freezing

The use of helicopters to mix the air and disperse radiation fog at airports is effective provided that

the fog is a shallow radiation fog with a relatively low liquid water content

On a cold, calm autumn morning, the formation of fog above a relatively warm lake would most likely be

steam fog

Which fog does not necessarily form in air that is cooling?

evaporation fog

Frontal fog most commonly forms as ___ raindrops fall into a layer of ____ air

warm; colder

Fog that most often forms as warm rain falls into a cold layer of surface air is called

evaporation

Clouds are classified by their

appearance

A reasonably successful method of dispersing cold fog is to

seed the fog with dry ice

Fog is a major hazard to aviation

true

Which association below is NOT correct?

altostratus- high cloud

At which city might you be able to observe cirrus clouds at an altitude of 3,000 m (0,000 feet) above the surface?

Barrow, Alaska

Even at high elevations where cirrus clouds are found, liquid water still exists in the clouds.

false

Which association below is not correct?

altocumulus castellanus- resemble "little castles"

Which cloud is LEAST likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?

cirrocumulus

In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the highest base?

cirrostratus

A halo around the moon means that

cirrostratus clouds are present and the clouds overhead are high clouds

Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon?

cirrostratus

Which of the following associations is not correct?

cumulus congestus - anviltop

Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ___clouds

nimbostratus

In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the lowest base?

stratocumulus

Which of the following cloud types would be found at the highest elevation above the earth's surface?

cirrocumulus

Which of the following pairs of cloud types could be very similar in appearance?

altocumulus and cirrocumulus

Which clouds often appear in parallel waves or bands?

altocumulus

A "mackerel sky" describes what type of cloud?

cirrocumulus

When viewed from the surface, the smallest individual cloud elements (puffs) are observed with which cloud?

cirrocumulus

Cirrus clouds are composed primarily of

ice particles

Detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, without shading, usually white in color and sometimes of a silky appearance are

cirrus clouds

Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow. From this you conclude that the cloud type must be

cirrostratus

At middle latitudes, the base of an altostratus or altocumulus cloud would generally be found between

6500 and 23000 feet

A middle cloud that sometimes forms in parallel waves or bands is:

altocumulus

A dim, "watery" sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of ____ clouds

altostratus

The name given to ragged-looking clouds that rapidly drift with the wind beneath a rain-producing cloud is:

scud

An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with:

cumulonimbus

If you hold your hand at arm's length and cloud elements appear to be about the size of your fist, the cloud type is probably:

stratocumulus

The name given to a towering cloud that has NOT fully developed into a thunderstorm is:

cumulus congestus

A low, lumpy cloud layer that appears in rows, patches, or rounded masses would be classified:

stratocumulus

Hail is usually associated with what cloud?

cumulonimbus

The cloud with the greatest vertical growth is:

cumulonimbus

As Apollo 12 ascended into the atmosphere, the height of the surrounding clouds was noted to be 42,000 feet. A lightning stroke was seen within these clouds, indicating that they must have been:

cumulonimbus

Which cloud forms in descending air?

Mammatus clouds

Which below is not a way in which a contrail may form?

due to heating of the air by the engine exhaust

The small, smooth cloud that may form just above the top of a towering cumulus cloud is called (a):

pileus cloud

The cloud-like streamer often seen forming behind an aircraft flying at high altitude is called (a):

contrail

Clouds that have a characteristic lens-shaped appearance are referred to as (a):

lenticular clouds

Clouds that appear as bag-like sacks hanging from beneath a cloud are:

mammatus

An altocumulus in the form of parallel waves would be described as an altocumulus

undulatus

Another name for a "mother of pearl" cloud is:

Nacreous clouds

"Luminous night clouds" are also called

noctilucent cloud

Which term below describes a situation in which clouds cover between one-tenth and five-tenths of the sky?

scattered

When clouds are viewed near the horizon, the individual cloud elements usually:

appear closer together than is actually the case

Which of the following can be used to determine the height of cloud bases?

ceiling balloons, rotating-beam ceilometer, fixed-beam ceilometer (all of the above)

If a pilot balloon rises at a rate of 100 m per minute, and if it disappears into a deck of stratus clouds 1,500 m (5,000 ft) thick in 5 minutes, what is the ceiling of the cloud layer?

500m

Which of the following would provide the most accurate method of determining cloud base altitude?

ceilometer

Infrared and visible satellite images might provide

a way of determining cloud thickness and altitude

On an infrared satellite image, low, warm clouds appear ___ and high, cold clouds appear ___

dark; light

Infrared satellite images are computer enhanced to:

increase the contrast between specific features in the picture

Satellite images taken of clouds at night use:

radiometers

If a cloud appears white on a visible satellite image and gray on an infrared image, then the cloud could be:

a low cloud

The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite provides information on tropical:

rainfall, sea surface temperatures with a microwave scanner

names given to satellites

geostationary satellites, polar-orbiting satellites, TRIOS, GOES, TRMM

Geostationary satellites

has a geostationary orbit- a circular geosynchronous orbit directly above the earths equator. Remain permanently fixed in exactly the same position in the sky.

Satellites can:

observe clouds in earths orbit. Provides extremely valuable cloud photographs of areas where there are no ground-based observations.

Polar orbiting satellites:

closely parallel the earths meridian lines. Pass over the north and south polar regions on each revolution. Covers the entire earth

A rotating-beam ceilometer is useful for

estimating the altitude of the tops of vertical development clouds

Lenticular clouds typically form___a mountain range.

over

When temperatures are below freezing, the temperature to which air must be cooled in order for a phase change to occur is called the:

dew point

Dew, frozen dew, and frost form when the below-freezing layer of air is:

close to ground level

On humid days, salt in saltshakers sometimes becomes moist and no longer pours out easily. The salt can be described as:

hygroscopic

Radiation fog typically forms on:

a clear winter night with a very slight breeze

In hilly areas, cold air typically collects:

in valleys

When fog is "burning off," the cloud droplets are preventing solar radiation from reaching the ground.

false

Stratus and high fog are:

a uniform grayish cloud that often cover the entire sky. Resembles fog that does not reach the ground. Might be confused with nimbostratus.

Advection fog is often observed along the Pacific coast during summer, as westerly winds carry moist air toward the shore. The fog forms because the surface water near the coast is ____then surface water farther offshore.

much colder

Suppose two ocean currents with different temperatures are flowing next to one another. If the wind blows perpendicular to the currents, we would expect to find:

advection fog

Upslope fog forms because air ___ as it flows up a hill or mountain range.

cools

Suppose two unsaturated air masses mix horizontally. The resulting mixture cannot possibly be saturated

false

In order to be effective, fog lamps on cars should be directed:

slightly downward

Which two clouds can produce precipitation?

cumulonimbus and nimbostratus

Which of the following clouds are almost always composed of ice crystals?

cirrus clouds

Stratus clouds are typically puffy and form by convection.

false

Which below best describes the solute effect?

substances dissolved in a droplet can enhance or retard growth of the droplet

Which statement below best describes the curvature effect?

even if a cloud is at 100% relative humidity, small droplets can evaporate

Condensation onto hygroscopic nuclei is possible at relative humidities less than 100 percent due to the:

solute effect

Which of the following is NOT an important factor in the production of rain by the collision-coalescence process?

the number of ice crystals in the cloud

Which cloud type below will only produce precipitation by the collision-coalescence process?

a thick, warm cumulus cloud

Large raindrops fall ____than smaller raindrops, and have a ___ terminal velocity than small raindrops.

faster; greater

Which cloud would most likely produce drizzle?

stratus

The merging of liquid cloud droplets by collision is called

coalescence

If you observe large raindrops hitting the ground, you could probably say that the cloud overhead was ___ and had ___ updrafts.

thick; strong

If rain falls on one side of a street and not on the other side, the rain most likely fell from a:

cumulonimbus cloud

During the ice crystal process of rain formation

ice crystals grow larger at the expense of the surrounding liquid cloud droplets

The temperature at which you would expect a cloud to become completely glaciated is

40 degrees C

Homogeneous nucleation occurs when:

randomly moving atoms form clusters above a critical threshold

When only ice crystals exist in a cloud, the cloud is said to be

glaciated

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

ice nuclei are more plentiful in the atmosphere than condensation nuclei

Ice nuclei may be:

ice crystals, certain clay minerals, bacteria in decaying plan leaf material

Supercooled cloud droplets are:

liquid droplets observed at temperatures below 0 deg C

At the same sub-freezing temperature, the saturation vapor pressure just above a liquid water surface is ____ the saturation vapor pressure above an ice surface.

greater than

Contact nucleation is:

involved in contact freezing. Can be just about any substance

The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called:

accretion or riming

Cloud seeding using silver iodide only works in

cold clouds composed of ice crystals and supercooled droplets

Which of the following conditions would be most suitable for natural cloud seeding by ice crystals?

a cirriform cloud lying directly above a lower cloud deck

What are the two main substances used in cloud seeding?

silver iodide and dry ice

After a rainstorm, visibility typically

improves

Rain which falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground is referred to as:

virga

The most common ice crystal shape:

dendrite

Fall streaks usually ____ before reaching the ground.

sublimate

Snowflakes or ice crystals falling from high cirriform clouds are called:

snow

A light shower of snow that falls intermittently from cumuliform clouds for a short duration is known as

flurries

The creaking sound produced by walking on snow is most common on:

new snow when the air temperature is below -10 deg C

Which below best describes why a fluffy covering of snow is able to protect sensitive plants and their root systems from damaging low temperatures?

snow is a good insulator

Large, heavy snowflakes are associated with

moist air and temperatures near freezing

Fall streaks most often form with:

cirrus clouds

A true blizzard is characterized by

low temp, strong winds, reduced visibility, blowing snow

The largest snowflakes would probably be observed in ___ air whose temperature is ___ freezing.

moist; near

In order for falling snowflakes to survive in air with temperatures much above freezing, the air must be ___ and the wet bulb temperature must be ____

unsaturated; at or below freezing

In the winter you read in the newspaper that a large section of the Midwest is without power due to downed power lines. Which form of precipitation would most likely produce this situation?

freezing rain

Which of the following might be mistaken for hail?

graupel

A raindrop or partially melted snowflake that freezes into a pellet of ice in a deep subfreezing layer of air near the surface is called

sleet

Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?

freezing rain

The primary method used in preventing the growth of large, destructive hailstones is to inject a thunderstorm with large quantities of

silver iodide

Hail deposited in a long narrow band is known as a

hail streak

Precipitation with the greatest size (diameter) is:

a hailstone

Glaze is another name for:

freezing rain

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