A towering cloud, or cluster of clouds, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and strong, gusty winds is a:
At night, when the weather is extremely cold and dry,
Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing attitude
At the 500 mb level, the amount of oxygen inhaled in a single breath is ____ of that inhaled at sea-level.
About one half
If you were to take a breath of pure oxygen, from a tank, you'd be getting about ____ the amount of oxygen you'd get by taking a normal breath of our atmosphere.
In a volume of air near the earth's surface, ____ occupies 78 percent and ____ nearly 21 percent.
In the atmosphere, tiny solid or liquid suspended particles of various composition are called:
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow ____ and ____ around an area of surface low pressure.
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds tend to blow ____ and ____ around an area of surface high pressure.
Clockwise and outward
Much of Tibet lies at altitudes over 18,000 feet where the pressure is about 500 mb. At such altitudes, the Tibetans are above roughly:
50 percent of the air molecules in the atmosphere
The gas that shows the most variation from place to place and from time to time in the lower atmosphere is which of the following?
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The greenhouse gas that has been increasing in concentration, at least partly due to deforestation, is:
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The instrument that measures temperature, pressure, and humidity at various altitudes in the atmosphere is the:
The ionosphere is an atmospheric layer that contains a high concentration of ions. An ion is:
An atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron
The only substance near the earth's surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid, and a gas is:
The primary source of oxygen for the earth's atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be:
There is a lot of mixing and overturning of air in which of the following atmospheric layers?
Typically, water vapor occupies about what percentage of the air's volume near the earth's surface?
Less than 4 percent
Where cold surface air replaces warm air, the boundary separating the different bodies of air is:
A cold front
Which of the following weather elements ALWAYS decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere?
"A good absorber of a given wavelength of radiation is also a good emitter of that wavelength." This is a statement of:
A change of one degree on the Celsius scale is ____ a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale.
According to Wein's displacement law, the wavelength at which maximum radiation occurs:
Is inversely proportional to the temperature
How do red and blue light differ?
Red has a higher wavelength and lower frequency blue has a lower wavelength
If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received,
The atmosphere's average temperature would change
If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would:
Shift to a shorter wavelength
If the earth's average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface would ____, and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward ____ wavelengths.
If the temperature of the air is said to be at absolute zero, one might conclude that:
The molecules contain a minimum amount of energy
If you want to keep an object cool while exposed to direct sunlight,
Wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward
In the earth's upper atmosphere, visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules produces:
Often before sunrise on a clear, calm, cold morning, ice (frost) can be seen on the tops of parked cars, even when the air temperature is above freezing. This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by ____.
On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface?
Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures, wearing a winter coat that is quite effective at keeping you warm. Which of the following is true?
The coat is the source of the heat that keeps you warm, The coat prevents your body's heat from escaping to the surrounding
The albedo of the earth's surface is only about 4 percent, yet the combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is about 30 percent. Which set of conditions below BEST explains why?
High albedo of clouds, low albedo of water
The amount of heat energy required to bring about a small change in temperature is called the:
The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the:
Absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere
The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by:
The earth's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation, while the sun's radiation is often referred to as ____ radiation.
The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is:
the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting , infrared radiation at equal rates
The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called:
Latent heat of condensation
The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near ____, while the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of ____.
.5 micrometers, 10 micrometers
Which of the following determine the kind (wavelength) and amount of radiation that an object emits?
Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:
Lower than at present
Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the:
Circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans
An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is that:
There is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation
At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on ____ and set below the horizon on ____.
March 21, September 23
At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed?
Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is ____ that in the Northern Hemisphere.
During summer near the North Pole, the sun is above the horizon ____ in the mid-latitudes.
On March 20
During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a:
Clear, calm afternoon
During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found:
At high latitudes
In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is ____ long and is ____ with each passing day.
More than 12 hours; getting shorter
In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually ____ than the air above during the night and ____ than the air above during the day.
In most areas, the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs:
In the afternoon between 2 and 5 pm
In summer, humid regions typically have ____ daily temperature ranges and ____ maximum temperatures than drier regions.
In the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following days has the fewest hours of daylight?
In the northern hemisphere, the number of hours of daylight begins to shorten after the:
On the summer solstice, the altitude of the noonday sun is highest:
231/2o north latitude (tropic of cancer)
Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month:
On a small island near the equator
Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35°F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that:
Temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground
The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5° with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40°, we would expect in middle latitudes:
Hotter summers and colder winters than at present
The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the:
Time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature
The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is about ____.
The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that:
The sun is higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation, The days are longer
The maximum in daytime surface temperature typically occurs ____ the earth receives its most intense solar radiation.
Two objects, A and B, have the same mass but the specific heat of A is larger than B. If both objects absorb equal amounts of energy,
B will become warmer than A
When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is ____ and ____ in the Southern Hemisphere.
Which of the following can be used as a method of protecting an orchard from damaging low temperatures during a radiation inversion?
Orchard heaters, Wind machines, Irrigation (cover the area with water)
Which of the following is NOT a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land?
It takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1oC than it does to raise the temperature of water 1oC
A high water vapor pressure indicates:
A relatively large number of water vapor molecules in the air
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the relative humidity will:
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will:
Remain the same
As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity:
At what time of day is the relative humidity normally at a minimum?
When the air temperature is highest
If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ____ the dew point and ____ the relative humidity.
In a blinding snowstorm in Vermont, the air temperature and dew-point temperature are both 30°F. Meanwhile, under clear skies in Arizona, the air temperature is 85°F and the dew point temperature is 38°F. From this information, you could conclude:
There is more water vapor in the air in Arizona
Nighttime temperatures rarely drop below the dew point temperature because:
At saturation, latent heat of condensation is released into the air
Suppose saturated polar air has an air temperature and dew point of -10°C, and unsaturated desert air has an air temperature of 35°C and a dew point of 10°C. The desert air contains ____ water vapor and has a ____ relative humidity than the polar air.
Suppose the dew point of cold outside air is the same as the dew point of the air indoors. If the door is opened and cold air replaces some of the warm air, then the new relative humidity indoors would be:
Higher than before
The Gulf Coast states are more humid in summer than the coastal areas of Southern California mainly because of the:
Higher water temperature in the Gulf of Mexico
The lowest temperature that can be attained by evaporating water into the air is known as the:
Wet - bulb temperature
The main reason why vegetables take longer to cook in boiling water at high altitudes is because:
The temperature of the boiling water decreases with increasing altitude
The percentage of water vapor present in the air compared to that required for saturation is the:
The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume (parcel) of air to the mass of the remaining dry air describes the:
The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated is the:
Dew point temperature
The time of day when the relative humidity reaches a maximum value is usually:
At the time when the air temperature is lowest
When the air is saturated, which of the following statements is NOT correct?
An increase in temperature will cause condensation to occur
Which of the following will increase the relative humidity in a home during the winter?
Taking a shower and letting the air circulate through the home
A conditionally unstable atmosphere is ____ with respect to unsaturated air and ____ with respect to saturated air.
A rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings is an example of:
An adiabatic process
If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it continues to move upward on its own accord, the atmosphere is said to be:
If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it falls back to its original position, the atmosphere is said to be:
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is:
If you were to take a trip during the summer from Ohio to Nevada, you would most likely observe that afternoon cumulus clouds ____ as you travel west.
In a conditionally unstable atmosphere, the environmental lapse rate will be ____ than the moist adiabatic rate and ____ than the dry adiabatic rate.
Most thunderstorms do not extend very far into the stratosphere because the air in the stratosphere is:
The difference between the "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to:
The fact that latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air
The name commonly used to describe the drier region observed on the downwind (leeward) side of a mountain range is:
The rate at which the actual air temperature changes with increasing height above the surface is referred to as the:
Environmental lapse rate
The rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising (or descending) parcel of saturated air is called the:
Moist adiabatic lapse rate
The temperature an air parcel would have if it were moved to a pressure of 1,000 mb at the dry adiabatic rate is called the:
What two sets of conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most unstable?
Cool the surface and warm the air aloft
When the environmental lapse rate decreases more rapidly with height than the dry adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is:
Which of the following cloud types would commonly be found downwind of a mountain?
Which of the following environmental lapse rates would represent the most unstable atmosphere in a layer of unsaturated air?
11oC per 1,000 m
Which set of conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most stable?
Cool the surface and warm the air aloft
Air molecules selectively scatter visible light because:
Air molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light
As light passes through ice crystals, ____ is bent the least and is, therefore, observed on the ____ of halos or sundogs.
If the setting sun appears red, you may conclude that:
Only the longest waves of visible light are striking your eye
On a foggy night, it is often difficult to see the road when the high beam lights are on because of ____ of light by the fog.
The bending of light that occurs when it enters and passes through a substance of different density is called:
What color would the sky be if air molecules selectively scattered only the longest wavelengths of visible light?
Which of the following can only be seen when the sun is to your back and it is raining in front of you?