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ionotropic receptors (ligandgated channels)

Allow movement of ions across membrane
through a gate that opens when neurotransmitter
binds; mediate fast behavior

"metabotropic" receptors

Involved in signal transduction cascades: Alter internal chemistry, Can modulate ion channels, Can result in alteration of protein synthesis via effects on gene transcription

Most common type is the G protein-coupled receptor

Couples a neurotransmitter (1st messenger) to an
effector protein via a G Protein (guanosine
phosphate binding protein) attached to the receptor

second messenger (G-protein coupled receptor)

can activate other enzymes resulting in a
transduction cascade that can affect many chemical
reactions

gene transcription

change in production of proteins; Formation of new receptors, enzymes, trophic
factors

Nuclear hormone receptors

bind to steroids (corticosteroids, mineralcorticoids, sex steroids, vitamin D), thyroid hormone

Activated tyrosine kinase receptor

Results in gene transcription

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