beyond a reasonable doubt
this means the judge or jury should be strongly convinced and know for sure that the defendant is guilty before they convict them (or give a sentence)
is when both parties are required to reveal all the info. they will be using against each other in trial. They show each other: witness statements, police records, documents, material possessions, experts' opinions, & anything else relevant to the case.
the rules for jury reaching a verdict. what 3/4ths of the jury decides on is what the verdict will be. or is based on a unanimous decision (based on what a few voted on)
is when a large amount of people (30-300) are chosen from a list (usually a voter-registration list/driver's license list) who are called to serve on jury duty.
at the beginning of the trial attorney's (usually the prosecutor's attorney) are allowed to present an overview of the evidence they will be using in the trial.
is when someone lies on the witness stand
if the witness lies on the witness stand, THEIR ATTORNEY will redirect the question, so the witness testimony will not loose its importance (or credibility)
Goal is to salvage the witness original testimony.
the credibility (reliability) of the witness is called into question
can u count on what the witness is saying?
recross (re-cross examination)
a 2nd examination, after their attorney has redirected the questions, the OPPOSING ATTORNEY asks follow up questions to check on the credibility of what the witness is saying
is evidence that opposing attorney uses to refute, to show that evidence that an earlier witness gave was false (maybe not completely true)
after the evidence is presented, usually the prosecutor give their final words (a summary of the evidence), then defense can give a wrap up/summary of the evidence. after this, Prosecutor can make the ultimate FINAL comment
preponderance of the evidence
means to rule in favor of the side who's evidence is more convincing.
information that is presented in an imaginable,vivid way (with images)& grabs your attention is more memorable,persuasive & has a greater impact on ppl.'s decisions than verbal descriptions
animations can persuade ppl. in ways diagrams cannot. Example:Video conference btwn witnesses & defendants who are unable to come to the court room
Example: judges & jurors watch a video game that may show how the crime occurred
the extent to which a person actually believes they're in this virtual environment.
experimental inflammatory bias
basically, anyone who watches a virtual environment in court, may not be able to imagine the event occurring in a different way. especially if the virtual environment makes the scenes appear realistic.
This could cause there to be biases in making decisions towards the case
a trial in which the judge makes the decision, not the jury. the jury is not present in the courtroom.
The judge determines if the defendant is guilty or innocent.
sometimes juries may reach a verdict without acknowledging the evidence/law. based on outside factors to determine the guilt/innocence of the defendant