ch.10 The Trial Process
|beyond a reasonable doubt||this means the judge or jury should be strongly convinced and know for sure that the defendant is guilty before they convict them (or give a sentence)|
|discovery||is when both parties are required to reveal all the info. they will be using against each other in trial. They show each other: witness statements, police records, documents, material possessions, experts' opinions, & anything else relevant to the case.|
|decision rule||the rules for jury reaching a verdict. what 3/4ths of the jury decides on is what the verdict will be. or is based on a unanimous decision (based on what a few voted on)|
|venire||is when a large amount of people (30-300) are chosen from a list (usually a voter-registration list/driver's license list) who are called to serve on jury duty.|
|opening statements||at the beginning of the trial attorney's (usually the prosecutor's attorney) are allowed to present an overview of the evidence they will be using in the trial.|
|perjury||is when someone lies on the witness stand|
|redirect questioning|| if the witness lies on the witness stand, THEIR ATTORNEY will redirect the question, so the witness testimony will not loose its importance (or credibility)|
Goal is to salvage the witness original testimony.
|impeach|| the credibility (reliability) of the witness is called into question|
can u count on what the witness is saying?
|recross (re-cross examination)||a 2nd examination, after their attorney has redirected the questions, the OPPOSING ATTORNEY asks follow up questions to check on the credibility of what the witness is saying|
|rebuttal evidence||is evidence that opposing attorney uses to refute, to show that evidence that an earlier witness gave was false (maybe not completely true)|
|closing argument||after the evidence is presented, usually the prosecutor give their final words (a summary of the evidence), then defense can give a wrap up/summary of the evidence. after this, Prosecutor can make the ultimate FINAL comment|
|preponderance of the evidence||means to rule in favor of the side who's evidence is more convincing.|
|vividness effect||information that is presented in an imaginable,vivid way (with images)& grabs your attention is more memorable,persuasive & has a greater impact on ppl.'s decisions than verbal descriptions |
animations can persuade ppl. in ways diagrams cannot. Example:Video conference btwn witnesses & defendants who are unable to come to the court room
Example: judges & jurors watch a video game that may show how the crime occurred
|presence||the extent to which a person actually believes they're in this virtual environment.|
|experimental inflammatory bias|| basically, anyone who watches a virtual environment in court, may not be able to imagine the event occurring in a different way. especially if the virtual environment makes the scenes appear realistic. |
This could cause there to be biases in making decisions towards the case
|bench trial|| a trial in which the judge makes the decision, not the jury. the jury is not present in the courtroom.|
The judge determines if the defendant is guilty or innocent.
|jury sentiments||sometimes juries may reach a verdict without acknowledging the evidence/law. based on outside factors to determine the guilt/innocence of the defendant|