Chemistry Final

Created by tommy7roche 

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Lots of vocab words for chemistry! Grade 10

ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

metallic bond

a chemical bond in which electrons are shared over many nuclei and electronic conduction occurs

chemical bond

an electrical force linking atoms

alloy

a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten

ions

electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

anion

a negatively charged ion

cation

a positively charged ion

oxyanion

a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen

anions

Negative charged ions

electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current

interstitial alloys

atoms of a different element "fill in gaps" in between the original metal atoms.

oxidation

The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.

lattice energy

the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions

polyatomic ion

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

monatomic ion

an ion formed from a single atom

electron sea model

proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons, and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility

properties of metals

shiny, ductile, good conductor of electric current, malleable, good conductor of thermal energy

sigma bond

a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei

pi bond

A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms

endothermic

a description of a change in which a system absorbs energy from its surroundings

exothermic

chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat

resonance structures

Lewis structures that have the same arrangement of atoms in a molecule but differ in the distribution of electrons among the atoms.

oxyacids

acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element (usually a nonmetal)

hybridization

(genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids

octet rule

States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons

lewis dot

consists of the symbol of an element and one dot for each valance electron in an atom of an element

bond

a connection that fastens things together

polar covalent bond

A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.

trigonal planar

an arrangement of atoms in the VSEPR model where the three pairs of electrons are placed 120 degrees apart on a flat plane.

electronegativity

The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound

coefficient

a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

specator ions

ions present in solution that do not participate directly in reaction

reactant

a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reactionf

aqueous solution

a solution in which the solvent is water

net ionic equation

includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution

complete ionic equation

an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions

chemical equation

a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products

replacement reaction

a chemical reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound, or when two elements in different compounds trade places

avogadro's number

number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23

mole

the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

hydrate

compound that has water chemically attached to its ions and written into its chemical formula

molar mass

The mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.

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