Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
He thought people could receive salvation only through personal faith and the grace of God (faith led to salvation). He publicly challenged the selling of indulgences?
Christine de Pizan
She was highly educated; one of the first women to earn a living as a writer (short stories, biographies, novels, and manuals on military techniques) She was one of the first European writers to question different treatment of boys and girls.
She was the first woman artist to gain an international reputation and known for her portraits of her sisters and of King Philip II of Spain.
Painted pictures of strong, heroic women.
The idea that at the beginning of time God decided who (the Elect) would be saved (central to Calvinism).
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance artist that painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, he was also an engineer, architect, sculptor, and scientist.
Italian Renaissance artist that painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and sculpted the statue of David.
Dutch (northern) humanist scholar who studied early Christian as well as classical culture (both). He criticized the Church.
Leading literary figure (English) of the time, he also transformed well-known stories into dramatic masterpieces and wrote plays that focused on human emotions.
Pardons from punishments for sin
He emphasized predestination and righteous living (high moral standards). He also set up a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland (1536).
One of the first humanists, studied classical writers, believed it is important to lead a full and active life here on earth (but worried about salvation).
He invented the printing press around 1450 A.D.
The name for the movement by the Catholic Church to make changes within itself.
Sir Thomas More
Wrote Utopia and condemned government as corrupt and argued that private ownership of property caused too many conflicts. He was executed by Henry VIII
French people, including high ranking nobles who converted to Calvinism.
Movement following the Middle Ages (beginning in the 1300's) that centered on the revival of the interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Taught life should be meaningful. Displayed a critical approach to learning.
Technique used by artists to create the illusion of depth by making distant objects smaller.
Henry VIII's desire for a divorce caused him to create the Anglican Church.
Why was the Anglican Church formed?
Where did the Renaissance begin?
With the invention of the printing press, books for the masses were published and broadsides became available. Churches looked to provide education for their followers as new ideas were spread faster than ever before.
Why did education increase during the Renaissance and Reformation?
popes sold indulgences to raise money; immoral behavior amongst the clergy; too much involvement in politics and war
What were 2 major causes for the Reformation?
1. Crusades brought Italians into contact with Byzantines who had preserved Greek and Roman learning; 2. Contact with new ideas from Asia and Africa; 3. Wealth from increased trade.
What were the causes of the Renaissance?
Council of Trent
Meeting held in 1545 to reform the Catholic Church, it clarified doctrines, emphasized ceremonies, tightened discipline within the clergy, and emphasized the need for priests.
The invention of the printing press
How did Luther's ideas spread so quickly?
Edict of Nantes
Gave religious freedom and some political rights to the Huguenots
A government ruled by religious leaders (ex. the city of Geneva, 1536).
Founded by Ignatius de Loyola (1534), they were a religious order that spread Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation.
1. diversity of churches; 2. education increased; 3. national governments (kings and queens) gained power
The major results of the Protestant Reformation
(Early 1500s) Influenced by the writings of Erasmus, he called for religious reform in Switzerland. He died in a battle between Catholics and Protestants
He created the Anglican Church in order to get a divorce?
Treaty of Augsburg, 1555
Stopped the fighting between Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) and the Protestant princes, allowing them to choose which religion would be in their kingdom.
Holy Roman Emperor that tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in the German states.
Pope Leo X
He labeled Martin Luther a heretic and excommunicated him.
Diet of Worms
A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Rafael, and Titian
Name the big 4 Italian Renaissance artists
Contrasted the course knight of the Middle Ages with the refined courtier of the Renaissance. He used fictional conversations to show how a gentleman should act.
Lorenzo de Medici
A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts (helping to grow the Renaissance).
She used her wealth, intelligence, and power to support artists and scholars in Florence, Italy. Her palace was one of the most brilliant of the Renaissance.