Modern World Civilization Final

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**= on the final

"War Guilt Clause"

World War I
After WWI, Germany is forced to take responsibility for the war with the Treaty of Versailles, taking harsh punishment and hurting the economy
Lost Money, Land, Colonies

Adolf Hitler

World War II
Became the leader of the Nazi Party (German Fascists) in 1921, title of "The Fuhrer"
Attempted and Imprisoned for a Coup in Munich
While in Prison, writes Mein Kampf
Made himself dictator in the "Third Reich"
Reforms:
1. Helped the economy to recover
2. Built up the Army and Navy
3. Put people to work
-Germany was strong and prosperous again and the people thanked Hitler
-Persecuted the Jews

African Independence

Modern Africa and the Middle East: How
1. African Nationalism
2. European Nations torn apart by WWII
3. US and USSR want end to Imperialism
-1950: Liberia, Ethiopia, Egypt, South Africa Ind.
-1982: About 50 Ind.
Problems with boarders, unity, experienced leaders, and education

America in WWI

World War I
1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare by Germany
-Sinking of the Lusitania (Luxury Cruise)
2. Zimmerman Telegram
-Germany tried to enter an Entangling Alliance with Mexico
3. 2 Billion Dollars in Loans to the Allies
4. "To make the World Safe for Democracy"
-Woodrow Wilson

Apartheid

Modern Africa and the Middle East
*The Complete Separation of the Races
Took place in South Africa
The whites (13% of Population) had Power

Appeasement

World War II
Policy of Appeasement= Making Concessions in the hopes of avoiding war
*Examples: Violation of Treaty of Versailles, Germany helps in Spanish Civil War, Troops in the Rhineland, Italy invades Liberia, Hitler takes the Sudetenland

Arab/Israeli Peace Process

Modern Africa and the Middle East
Anwar Sadat- president of Egypt who visited Israel in the hopes of peace
Menachem Bega- prime minister visited Egypt
Signed a Peace Treaty in DC called the Camp David Accords
Egypt gets the Sinai Peninsula back and Recognizes Israel's right to exist

Atomic Bomb

America dropped 2 on Japan on VJ
Big nations now have Atomic Bombs
If there is a WWIII, the world would end due to the usage of Atomic Bombs
The Arms Race

Ayatollah Khomeini

Modern Africa and the Middle East
Comes to power after The Shah is overthrown
The Holy Man, (Shiite) started Islamic Fundamentalist Movement (back to the basics, women are restricted, everyone should be Islamic)
In 1979, 59 American hostages were seized in American Embassy for 444 days
Iraq/Iran War

Bangladesh

Modern Latin America and Asia
Pakistan is divided between east and west, Civil War Begins
India joined on the side of the East and helped to create the Nation of Bangladesh
It is now one of the Poorest Countries

Battle of Britain

World War II
Yearlong Air Battle for Supremacy over Great Britain's skies
Operation Sea Lion
600 a day die from bombing
GB use Enigma Machine (codes)
Germany looses more planes than GB

Battle of El Alamein

World War II
Turning point for the Allies, North Africa
-GB defeats Germany and goes on the Offense
*1st German Defeat

Berlin Wall

Modern Europe
Created after the Blockade of West Berlin
No one can escape, physical iron curtain
The USSR builds the Berlin Wall to separate East and West

Boris Yeltsin

Modern Europe
1st Freely Elected Leader who established a Democracy in Russia after USSR breaks up
Came to power after Gorbachev

Chiang Kai-Shek

Modern Latin America and Asia
The Long March
Chinese Nationalist Leader
Communists under Mao Zedong defeat the nationalists and Chiang
Forced to retreat to Taiwan

Cuban Missile Crisis

Modern Latin America and Asia
Fidel Castro makes Cuba a Communist Nation and Becomes an ally of USSR
Cuban Exiles, Aided by the US Invade Cuba to overthrow Castro, and fail, at the Bay of Pigs
Cuba asks the USSR for help, and they send nuclear missiles, then turn around
*Closest ever came to Nuclear War

D-Day

World War II
The Allies Invasion of France, Largest Amphibious Attack in History (June 6, 1944)

Division of Germany

Modern Europe
Germany is divided in Occupation Zones after the War
-US, France, Great Britain, USSR
Germany divided between East and West
East= Communist
West= Democratic
GB, France, and the US stayed in until they were rebuilt and were a democracy and USSR stayed in for 45 years

Dunkirk

World War II
Hitler made the Crucial Mistake allowing 338,000 French and British Soldiers to Escape

El Salvador

Modern Latin America and Asia
In 1969, a Soccer War Broke Out Between El Salvador and Honduras
Had a Civil War, Communists vs. Right Wing Dictatorship

Fidel Castro

Modern Latin America and Asia
Succeeded Batista
Made Cuba a Communist Nation
Ally of USSR
Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis
As far as we know, still in power

Five Year Plans

World War II
Joseph Stalin won Control of the Communists in the USSR
Modernized with the Five Year Plans
-USSR industrialized Quickly as steel and oil Production Quadrupled in just 10 Years
-If quota not filled, killed

Great Leap Forward

Modern Latin America and Asia
Under Communist Mao Zedong in China
An Attempt to Rapidly Increase China's Agricultural and Industrial Output
-Collective Farms, need to be Equal

Haiti

Modern Latin America and Asia
**In September 1944, America invaded Haiti to Reinstall Freely Elected President Aristide
Haiti, Already Poorest Nation in the Western Hemisphere, suffered a Devastating Earthquake in 2010
**1st Latin American Country to be Independent

Hungarian Revolt (1956)

Modern Europe
In 1965, Hungary Called for Free Elections and Tried to Withdraw from the Warsaw Pact
Soviet Troops Crush the Hungarian Resistance with 100,000

Imperialism

Age of Imperialism
Ways: Colony, Sphere of Influence, Protectorate
Reasons:
1. Economic- Desire to Acquire new markets and Raw Materials
2. Nationalism- to Increase a Nation's Power and Prestige
3. Religious and Humanitarian concerns (Rudyard Kipling's "White Man's Burden)
(Gold, God, Glory)

India and Pakistan

Modern Latin America and Asia
In 1947, under Mahatma Gandhi, India and Pakistan Gained Independence from Great Britiain
India= Mostly Hindu
Pakistan= Mostly Muslim
10 Million Migrate, starting the first War

Islam

Modern Africa and the Middle East
**The Dominant Religion in the Middle East
Shiites, Sunni, and Druze

Islamic Fundamentalist

Modern Africa and Middle East
Started by Ayatollah Khomeini
Back to Basics, no Tolerance for any other Religion
Hate the US for being Secular
Osama Bin Laden

Japan

Modern Latin America and Asia
In Asia
America Occupied under General Douglass Macarthur from 1943-1952

Korean War

Modern Latin America and Asia
China Fought on the Side of the North (Communist)
US on the Side of the South (Democracy)

League of Nations

World War I
"Peace Without Victory"
Part of the Fourteen Points
Not everyone is a member, some drop out
Like the UN

Lebanon

Modern Africa and the Middle East
Civil War Broke out Between Christians and Muslims
Still a War-Torn Country

Lech Walesa

Modern Europe
Solidarity Leader (Led protests and strikes on living and working conditions
Came to Power in Poland

Manuel Noriega

Modern Latin America and Asia
Drug Dealing Leader of Panama
US invades to Arrest him

Mao Zedong

Modern Latin America and Asia
Father of Communism in China
Long March, Civil War
Came to Power, Defeating Chiang
Great Leap Forward and The Cultural Revolution
Obsessed with Equality

Marshall Plan

Modern Europe
Part of the Truman Doctrine
Helped to Rebuild Western Europe by Giving Nations $13 Billion
-Satellite States offered $13 Billion, they said no

Mexico

Modern Latin America and Asia
Country in Latin America
Has Oil and Natural Gases

Monroe Doctrine

Age of Imperialism
Western Hemisphere to be Free from Further Colonization
Latin Americans resent us appointing ourselves "guardian of the hemisphere"

N.A.T.O.

Modern Europe
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
US, Canada, and 10 European Democracies (1949)
Stop Communist

Nicaragua

Modern Latin America and Asia
In 1979, the Communists came to power (US= Economic Sanctions)
Civil War broke out between Communists and the American-Back Contras
1990, Free Elections Held, no longer communists

O.P.E.C

Modern Africa and the Middle East
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Influence Oil Prices, Led by Saudi Arabia
Supply and Demand (Demand of China)

Operation Desert Storm

Modern Africa and the Middle East
Iraq, under Saddam Hussein, Conquers Kuwait, Worldwide Coalition
Launched to Liberate Kuwait and Iraq is defeated in 6 weeks

Opium War

Age of Imperialism
Opium= highly addictive drug
Great Britain vs. China
China was defeated and forced to sign an unequal and humiliating treaty
Shows that China is weak
More countries form Spheres of Influence

Panama

Age of Imperialism/ Modern Latin America and Asia
US encourages to Rebel to become Independent
US Takes Canal
1978, America signs treaty to give back canal by 2000
America invaded to arrest Drug Dealing Leader Manuel Noriega

Perestroika

Modern Europe
Gorbachev's Reforms
Introduced more Freedom to the Economy

Reparations

World War I
Money Paid from the Losers to the Winners of War
Germany forced to pay $31 Million for WWI
Kills the Economy

Russian Revolution

World War II
Revolutions broke out and a Provisional Government was Established (Duma= Democracy)
Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks (Communists) seized Power from Provisional Government
Lenin Promised "Peace, Bread, and Land"

Russo-Japanese War

Age of Imperialism
Japan Defeats Russia, fighting over China
1st Time an Asian Nation Defeated an European Nation
Starts Revolution of 1905 in Russia

Scorched Earth

World War II
The USSR follows the policy as they retreated and burnt everything

Sepoy Rebellion

Age of Imperialism
Sepoy= Indian Soldier Trained, Equipped, and Led by the British
Took place against the British
**British troops crushed the rebellion and made India a Colony

Shiite/Sunni

Modern Africa and the Middle East
Main Branches of Islam
Most Dominant is Sunni
Shiite is Majority of Iraq and Iran

Solidarity

Modern Europe
Led By Lech Walesa
A Series of Strikes to Protest living and working conditions in Poland

Soviet-Block

Modern Europe
The Satellite States
-Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany
States where Policies are Dominated by Another Country (USSR)

Spanish Civil War

World War II
Civil War Between Facists and Republicans
Germany and Italy Openly Help Facists Win
Spain was a chance for Germany to test new Weapons
Goes Against League of Nations, Appeasement

Start Of WWI

World War I
*Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian Nationalist in Bosnia
Entangling Alliance, one enters War, All enter War

Taiwan

Modern Latin America and Asia
Communists Defeat Nationalists, the Nationalists and Chiang retreat to the Island Nation
Mainland China considers it to be a Colony in Rebellion
America Protects, Issues between the Countries

Treaty of Versailles

World War I
Peace Treaty ending the war, Led to WWII, Germany Humiliated
Germany Must: Accept Full responsibility, pay reparations, lost colonies, lost territory, army and navy restricted, new nations, League of Nations

Triple Alliance

World War I
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
One Goes to War, All go to War

Triple Entente

World War I
France, Russia, Great Britain
One Goes to War, All go to War

Truman Doctrine

Modern Europe
A Policy to Resists Communist Expansion around the World, *containment
Do Anything to Stop the Spread

U.N. Security Counsel

Modern Europe
In Charge of Keeping the Peace, Decides when to Take Military Actions
US, USSR, France, China, GB can Veto

Venezuela

Modern Latin America and Asia
One of the Latin American Countries With Oil

Vladimir Lenin

World War II
Russian Revolution
Leads the Bolsheviks, Communists to Power in Russia
1st Communist Leader in the World
Reforms:
1. Started to rebuild economy
2. Changed name to USSR
3. Moves capital to Moscow
Mistake:
1. Signed Peace Treaty With Germany
2. Help Elections, looses, says don't count

Weimar Republic

World War I/ World War II
The Government Established at the End of WWI of Germany
Blamed for:
1. Signing the Treaty of Versailles
2. Economic Problems (Hyper Inflations)
3. Political and Social Unrest
Democracy lasted 15 Years, unpopular

Woodrow Wilson

World War I
President of The US
Created the Fourteen Points
Pushed for a League of Nations

Yugoslavia

Modern Europe
Communist Country, Not Satellite State
Failed When Communism Fails in USSR
Broke up into Smaller Nations based on Nationalism and there has been fighting ever since
Bosnian Serbs vs. Bosnian Muslims

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