Lab Biology Final Review

93 terms by kaikai10210 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Gene

The segments of DNA that contain the genetic information for a given trait or protein.

DNA

Nucleic Acid made of a double helix. Consists of three parts; sugar, phosphate & nitrogen base.

Nucleotide

The building blocks, or subunits, of DNA and RNA; they include four types of nitrogen bases, which occur in two pairs.

Protein Synthesis

The process of making protein from amino acids.

Replication

Replicating DNA.

Transcription

Messenger for protein synthesis. Single strand. mRNA

Translation

Making Polypeptides (Proteins) from info on mRNA. tRNA opposite to mRNA.

Amino Acid

Building blocks of Proteins

Polypeptide

Protein

Protein

A group of organic compounds that are made up of chains of amino acids.

Gene Expression

Activation of a gene that results in the formation of a protein.

Differentiation

The formation of specialized cells from less specialized parent cells through controlled gene expression.

Morphogenesis

Change in form of an organism through cell differentiation.

Oncogene

Gene that causes cancer.

Cancer

Uncontrolled growth of one or more cells.

Enzyme

Proteins that act as catalysts to increase the rate of chemical reactions in living things.

Restriction Enzyme

Create "sticky ends" on cut DNA segments. Can readily bind to other chains.

Recombinant DNA

Combination of DNA from 2+ sources.

Plasmid

Ring of DNA (found inside cloning vector)

Cloning

Recombinant, Reproductive, Therapeutic.

Genome

Complete genetic material contained in an individual.

Gene Therapy

Treating genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a cell or by directing a gene defect in a cell's genome.

Transgenic Organism

Contains genes that have been artificially inserted into them instead of them acquiring them through reproduction.

DNA Fingerprint

Pattern of bands made up of specific fragment from an individual's DNA.

DNA Technology

Used to cure diseases, treat genetic disorders, improve food crops, improve lives of human.

Human Genome Project

Determined nucleotide sequence of entire human genome. Map location of every gene on chromosome. Compare human genome to other organisms genome.

Biogenesis

All living things come from other living things.

Gradualism

Species evolve at a gradual, stable rate.

Punctuated Equilibrium

"Instant" change to a rather norm period of stability.

Charles Darwin

Mid 1800s proposed natural selection. The origin of species, 1859.

Endosymbiosis

Mutually beneficial relationship.

Natural Selection

States how evolution occurs. Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms.

Biogeography

Study of geographical distribution of fossils and of living organisms.

Extinction

Discontinuation of a species.

Adaptation

Organisms being well suited to their environment.

Adaptive Advantage

A favorable trait in an organism

Divergent Evolution

Two or more related populations become more and more dissimilar.

Gene Flow

Genes moving from one population to another.

Speciation

The formation of new species as a result of evolution

Phylogenic Tree

Family tree that shows the evolutionary relationship.

Cladogram

A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms

Taxonomy

The branch of science that deals with the classification of organisms.

Linnaeus

Revised a system of grouping organisms into hierarchical categories.

Prokaryote

Does not contain a nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles.

Eukaryote

Contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Common Ancestor

Shares same common ancestor. Homologous structures.

Autotroph

Producers

Heterotroph

Consumers

Biotic Factors

All living things in an environment

Abiotic Factors

All non living things in an environment.

Limiting Factor

The specific environmental requrements that can limit where an organism lives

Carrying Capacity

The size of a population that can be supported by an ecosystem.

Ecosystem

Includes all biotic and abiotic factors that interact in a specific area.

Population

All the individuals of the same species that live in the same area at one time.

Renewable Resources

Resource that can be renewed.

Niche

An organism's specific role in, or interaction with, its ecosystem; how an organism survives.

Producer

Organism who makes their own food.

Consumer

Organism who has to eat food to obtain energy

Decomposer

Heterotrophic organisms that obtain their energy by feeding on decaying organisms.

Exponential Growth

Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

Logistic Growth

Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

Symbiosis

A close relationship between two or more different organisms that live together; each partner may either help, harm, or have no effect on the other partner.

Mutualism

Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship

Competition

The struggle between organisms for limited resources such as food and space.

Biome

Very large geographic areas that are characterized by a certain climate and ecosystem.

Trophic Level

The feeding levels through which energy flows in a food chain.

Food Chain

The direct transfer of energy form one organism to the next.

Food Web

The complex, interconnecting food chains in a community.

Eutrophication

Process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen

Biogeochemical Cycles

Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another

Global Warming

An increase in the average atmospheric temperature of Earth due to more heat-trapping CO2 in the air, which causes the "greenhouse effect"

Greenhouse Effect

Process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space

Conservation

The preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources

Bacteria

Prokaryotic. Unicellular, Asexual Reproduction, Heterotroph or Autotroph, Cilia, Flagella, Variety of environments. Harmful or beneficial.

Virus

Nonliving particle composed of a nucleic acid ad a protein coat. Causes diseases in living organisms.

Immunity

The ability to resist or prevent infection by a particular microbe

Homeostasis

Maintaining internal stability.

Antigen

Molecule that stimulates and immune response. Stimulate antibody generation. Made of proteins or polysaccharides.

Antibody

Cannot kill a virus. Can also kill "good" bacteria. Proteins naturally found in the blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrate bodies. Used by immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects.

Vaccine

Harmless version of a virus. Antigenic preparation used to establish immunity from a disease. Can be prophylactic or therapeutic

Immune Response

A bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen

Infectious

Harmful & will infect

Pathogenic

Causes diseases

Vector

Special molecules that can move pieces of DNA from the cell of one organism to another

Endosphere

A resistant wall in which bacterial replicate their DNA. It is able to survive trauma that the bacteria cannot.

Cyst

A small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)

Protozoan

Animal-like protist

Flagella

Whip-like structure used for mobility

Cilia

Short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell

Cephalization

Concentration of sensory organs at anterior end.

Coelum

Body cavity in an organism, region where organs are located

Segmentation

Division of an animal body along its length into a series of repeated parts called segments

Notochord

Stiff, flexible rod along back side of chordates.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set