ESC1000 Chapter 3 Rocks

122 terms by thumpaholden

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element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means

atom

The smallest particle that can exist as an element

molecule

2 or more atoms joined together

compound

A molecule comprised of two or more elements

mineral

A naturally occurring, inorganic solid (at normal earth temperatures) with a repeating crystalline structure and definite chemical composition.

CaCO3

What is the chemical formula of the mineral that is an exception to the standard definition of a mineral because it is made by organisms?

calcium carbonate

chemical name of calcite

calcite

The mineral name of CaCO3

rock

Any naturally occurring solid mass composed of one or more minerals

oxygen (47%)

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: _______, silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.

silicon (28%)

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , _______, aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.

aluminum (8.1%)

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), _______, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.

iron

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), _______, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium.

calcium

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, _______, sodium, potassium, magnesium.

sodium

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, _______, potassium, magnesium.

potassium

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, _______, magnesium.

magnesium

8 elements that form over 98% of rocks in the earth's crust: oxygen (47%) , silicon (28%), aluminum (8.1%), iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, _______.

47

Percentage of oxygen in rocks of the earth's crust

28

Percentage of silicon in rocks of the earth's crust

8.1

Percentage of aluminum in rocks of the earth's crust

90

Percentage of rocks in the crust made of silicates

feldspars

The most common group of silicates in the earth's surface

quartz

The second most common silicate in the earth's surface

non-silicates

Term for rocks that do not contain silicon and oxygen.

luster

Term for the quality or appearance of light reflected from the surface of a rock.

metallic and non metallic

The two major categories of luster used in rock identification.

vitreous

Term for the type of luster that is shiny like glass or colored glass.

light and dark

The two major categories of color used in rock identification.

cleavage

Term for the shape of the broken crystals in a rock.

effervescence

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that reacts with acid.

elasticity

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can flex and return to its original form.

malleability

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can be permanently deformed

refraction

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can reflect light internally in a way that produces two images.

radioactivity

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that can make a Geiger counter tick.

fluorescence

Term for the diagnostic property of a mineral that will glow under black light.

conchoidal fracture

Term for the cleavage that broken glass has.

streak

The color of a mineral in powdered form

hardness

Term for how hard a mineral is on Moh's hardness scale, which indicates how strongly the atoms are bonded together

1 to 10

Range of Moh's hardness scale

2.5

Hardness score of fingernail on Moh's hardness scale

3.5

Hardness score of a penny on Moh's hardness scale

5.5

Hardness score of glass on Moh's hardness scale

6.5

Hardness score of a streak plate on Moh's harness scale.

10

Hardness score of diamond on Moh's hardness scale

specific gravity

How heavy a sample is compared to the mass of an equal volume of water

1

Specific gravity of water

igneous

Category of rock that forms by the cooling of magma

sedimentary

Category of rock that is formed from the weathered products of pre-existing rocks that have been transported, deposited and lithified.

metamorphic

Category of rock that is formed by the alteration of pre-existing rocks, primarily through the action of heat and/or pressure (but without melting)

magma

Term for molten rock below the earth's surface, including dissolved gases.

crystallization

Term for the process of cooling magma.

cooling rate

Factor that determines the size of crystals in a mineral.

slow

Cooling rate of magma that produces larger crystals.

rapid

Cooling rate of magma that produces smaller crystals

extremely rapid

Cooling rate of magma that produces no crystals, like glass.

extrusive

Category of igneous rock that forms above the surface

small

Size of crystals in extrusive igneous rocks

large

Size of crystals in intrusive igneous rocks

intrusive

Category of igneous rock that forms beneath the surface.

texture and composition

Characteristics used to classify igneous rocks.

texture

Characteristic that describes the overall appearance of an igneous rock, generally based on the size of crystals.

composition

Characteristic that describes what rocks are made of, based on the constituents of the magma.

fine-grained

Texture of extrusive rocks with crystals that are invisible to the naked eye.

vesicles

Term for the bubbles in igneous rocks produced by dissolved gases.

coarse grained

Texture of intrusive rocks with visible crystals.

porphyritic

Term for the texture of igneous rocks with visible crystals in a fine-grained matrix.

glassy

Term for the texture of rocks with no crystals, but may have vesicles.

dark

Color of silicates that are relatively low in silica

light

Color of silicates that are relatively high in silica.

basaltic or mafic

Terms for igneous rocks that are high in dark silicates (45-85%)

granitic or felsic

Terms for igneous rocks that are low in dark silicates (0-25%)

andesitic or intermediate

Terms for igneous rocks that have moderate amounts of dark silicates (25-45%)

ultramafic

Term for igneous rocks that are very high in dark silicates (>85%)

basalt

A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with fine grained texture.

gabbro

A rock: igneous, high in dark silicates, and with coarse-grained texture.

diorite

A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.

andesite

A rock: igneous, has a moderate amount of dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.

granite

A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a coarse-grained texture.

rhyolite

A rock: igneous, is low in dark silicates and has a fine-grained texture.

sedimentary

Category of rock that forms from the lithification of sediments or dissolved substances from preexisting rocks.

chemical and detrital

Two main categories of sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)

cementation and compression

Two processes that form sedimentary rocks (in alphabetical order)

detrital

Category of sedimentary rocks made of sediments and particles that came from pre-existing rocks. e.g. siltstone.

chemical

Category of sedimentary rocks made of dissolved substances that came from pre-existing rocks. e.g. rock salt.

feldspar

A mineral: breaks down physically and chemically into particles that form muds and clays.

quartz

A mineral: is durable and breaks down physically into smaller and smaller grains.

particle or grain size

Characteristics used to classify detrital sedimentary rocks.

grain size

Term for the average size of the particles that make up a sedimentary rock.

conglomerate

A rock: sedimentary, rounded coarse-grained texture.

breccia

A rock: sedimentary, angular coarse-grained texture.

sandstone

A rock: sedimentary, medium-grained texture.

siltstone

A rock: sedimentary, fine-grained texture.

shale

A rock: sedimentary, very fine-grained texture.

crystalline limestone and travertine

A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of calcite with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.

coquina

A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with visible and loosely cemented shells and shell fragments.

fossiliferous limestone

A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with various size shells cemented with calcite cement.

chalk

A rock: sedimentary, composed of calcite with microscopic shells and clay.

chert and flint

A rock (two types): sedimentary, composed of quartz with very fine crystalline texture.

rock gypsum

A rock: sedimentary, composed of gypsum with a fine to coarse crystalline structure.

rock salt

A rock: sedimentary, composed of halite with a find to coarse crystalline structure.

CaSO4

Chemical formula for gypsum.

CaCO3

Chemical formula for calcite.

SiO2

Chemical formula for quartz.

NaCl

Chemical formula for halite.

bituminous coal

A rock: sedimentary, composed of compressed and lithified plant matter.

parent rock

Term for the original rock from which metamorphic rock is made.

low

Grade of metamorphic rock that is not very changed from the parent rock.

high

Grade of metamorphic rock that is very changed from the parent rock.

heat and pressure

Two processes that form metamorphic rocks (in alphabetical order).

around magma bodies and mountain formations

Two places where metamorphic rocks form.

texture, grain size and composition

Three characteristics used to classify metamorphic rocks.

foliated

Term to describe metamorphic rocks that have realigned crystals, which give the rock a layered or banded appearance.

non-foliated

Term to describe metamorphic rocks with crystals that do NOT form layers or bands, usually where a rock is formed of a single mineral. e.g.marble

slate

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, very fine texture, parent material is shale

phyllite

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, fine grained texture, looks like shiny, often wavy, parent rock is slate.

schist

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, looks scaly or flaky, parent rock is phyllite.

gneiss

A rock: metamorphic, foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, has light and dark bands, wide range of parent rocks.

marble

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, medium to coarse grained texture, composed of calcite.

marble

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent rock is limestone or chalk

quartzite

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, and medium to coarse-grained, composed of quartz

quartzite

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent material of sandstone

anthracite

A rock: metamorphic, non-foliated, parent material of coal.

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