A value achieved by carrying out an inferential test, a value that represents the data set from an investigation.
What is the Observed value?
A value taken from a statistical table which, when compared with an observed value shows whether results are significant or not.
What is the Critical value?
How many tests require the observed value to be greater than the critical value?
Wilcoxen, Mann Whitney, Binomial sign test
Name the 3 tests which require the observed value to be greater than the critical value?
How many tests require the observed value to be less than the critical value?
T test for related samples, T test for unrelated samples, Chi Square test, Spearmans rank order correlation, Pearsons product moment correlation
Name the 5 tests which require the observed value to be less than the critical value?
The direction of the research hypothesis
The amount of data collected
The signficance level chosen by the researcher
Name the 3 criteria the critical value is identified with?
If the researcher uses a directional hypothesis it shows they are confident in their outcome. If they use a non directional it can be seen as them doubting their chances of getting a significant result and make it more difficult to achieve
Why does the direction of the research hypothesis have an impact on the critical value?
A measure based on the size of a sample a measure of the number of pieces of data that have not been used up in a calcuation
What is the degress of freedom? (df)
The significance of a difference or correlation is clearly related to the number of people or scores that it applies to.
Why is the amount of data significant in the critical value?
What is the conventional level of signficance in phsychology?
They may make a Type II error
What is the problem with having a signficance level that is to stringent eg: 1%
They may make a Type I error
What is the problem with having a signficance level that is too lax? eg: 10%
If the researcher wants to be only 90% sure of his research a critical value is chosen that makes it easier to achieve significant results. However these might not be reliable.
Why is the significance level signrficant to the critical value?
British psychological society. Respect, competenece, responsibilty and integrity
Who came up with the ethics and conduct code and what are their four main categories?
Respect, Competence, repsonsibility, integrity
What are the British psychological societys four main catergoires for ethics?
Gaining informed consent, Avoid Deception, Protection from harm and abuse, confidentiality.
Name 4 ethical issues within design and conduct? (When setting up and carrying out research)
Avoiding cultural bias, responsiblity to act on results, respecting confidentiality of community or society
Name 3 ethical issues within social and cultural enviorment?
Sometimes its impossible to conduct your research without avoiding deception for example. The ends justify the means
Explain why unethical research still takes place?