GEOG 155: Exam 2

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The _______________ temperature scale is used in scientific research because temperature readings are proportional to the actual kinetic energy in a material.

- Kelvin
- Kaveney
- Christopherson
- Fahrenheit
- Celsius

Kelvin

Holding all other factors constant, air temperature diminishes with increasing altitude because the ________ of the atmosphere decreases.

-apparent temperature
-specific heat
-continentality
-density

density

On a sunny summer day, we can attribute the difference in temperature between the hot surface of a sandy beach and the cooler sand a few centimeters below the surface to the very low ________________ of the sand.

-relative humidity
-specific temperature
-transparency
-land-water heating difference
-heat index

transparency

One of the primary reasons that water changes temperature more slowly than soil or rock is because of its higher ________.

-absolute heat
-volume
-ambient temperature
-specific heat
-absolute temperature

specific heat

Temperature maps commonly use lines of constant (equal) temperature called __________________ to portray the spatial pattern of temperature.

-thermal equators
-temperature lines
-wind chill potential
-isotherms
-isokelvins

isotherms

Everything else being equal, you would expect higher temperatures associated with _______________.

-high elevations
-low elevations
-high longitudes
-rural areas
-low longitudes

low elevations

The isotherm corresponding to the highest temperatures on Earth's surface is called the___________.

-thermal equilibrium
-equatorial isotherm
-thermal equator
-isotherm
-maximum temperature isoline

thermal equator

The ____________ indicates the human body's reaction to temperature and water vapor (see Focus Study 5.1).

-Beufort scale
-heat index
-wind chill index
-Kelvin scale
-humidity index

heat index

Places with the largest annual temperature ranges on Earth are __________________.

-the middle latitudes, which are neither too hot, nor too cold-tropical regions
-subpolar locations within the continental interiors of North America and Asia
-polar regions
-along the west coasts of the continents

subpolar locations within the continental interiors of North America and Asia

On a global scale, ____________ is the single most important direct influence on temperature.

-insolation
-wind patterns
-air pressure
-longitude
-altitude

insolation

An outdoor thermometer reading ________ degrees Celsius would indicate a very hot but bearable day.

-95
-40
-10
-25
-120
-60

40

Altitude is the single most important influence on temperature variations.

T or F

False

Within the troposphere, temperatures decrease with increasing altitude above Earth's surface.

T or F

True

Approximately 84 percent of all evaporation on Earth is from the land.

T or F

False

Higher ocean temperatures produce higher evaporation rates.

T or F

True

Locations near the centers of continents are described as having more "maritime" influences than locations near the coasts.

T or F

False

On average, the coldest region of Earth is in northern Canada.

T or F

False

Apparent temperature is the perception of temperature, and it varies among individuals and cultures.

T or F

True

The coldest wind chill factors are produced by low temperatures and high winds.

T or F

True

The heat index is a combination of temperature and humidity.

T or F

True

In July, isotherms in the Northern Hemisphere shift toward the poles over land since higher temperatures occur in continental interiors.

T or F

True

Compared to a land surface exposed to the same solar radiation, an ocean surface should have a higher annual temperature range.

T or F

False

A traveler heading due east from San Francisco, Calif., in January will generally experience warmer overall temperatures as he/she approaches the interior of the continent.

T or F

False

If you had to measure a temperature below -38F degrees?

an alcohol thermometer

the melting point of ice

0 degrees Celsius (32 °F)

lowest recorded temperature in Southern Hemisphere (Vostok, Antarctica)

-89 degrees Celsius (-129 °F)

lowest recorded temperature in Northern Hemisphere (Verkhoyansk, Russia)

-68 degrees Celsius (-90 °F)

normal room temperature

20 degrees Celsius (68 °F)

boiling point of water (at sea-level air pressure)

100 degrees Celsius (212 °F)

highest recorded temperature for North America (Death Valley, CA)

57 degrees Celsius (134 °F)

approximate normal body temperature

37 degrees Celsius (98 °F)

We measure wind speed using a/an ____________.

-wind tunnel
-wind speedometer
-anemometer
-Beaufort scale
-wind vane

anemometer

We measure air pressure using ______________.

-a Torricelli scale
-a Torricelli pump
-aneroid mercury
-a barometer
-an isobar

a barometer

The surface flow of a Southern Hemisphere cyclone (low-pressure system) would be ________.

-inward and counterclockwise
-inward and clockwise
-outward and counterclockwise
-outward and clockwise

inward and clockwise

The Polar Jet Stream meanders between 30 and 70 degrees north latitude at the Tropopause along the Polar Front.

T or F

True

In a Northern Hemisphere anticyclone, the dominant surface air circulation pattern can be described as clockwise and outward.

T or F

True

Frictional forces vary according to the type of surface over which the wind blows.

T or F

True

If one were able to look down on the Earth from some point above the North Pole, one would see that the Earth rotates in a clockwise direction.

T or F

False

The pressure gradient force acts in a direction perpendicular to the isobars, from low to high pressure.

T or F

False

The highest barometric pressure ever recorded on Earth occurred in association with Hurricane Wilma in 2005.

T or F

False

Surface high pressure is best generally associated with fair, clear weather.

T or F

True

An isobar is a line plotted on a weather map to connect all points of equal temperature.

T or F

False

Along the equator, winds converge into the equatorial high pressure trough creating the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

T or F

False

Both the North Pacific Aleutian Low and the North Atlantic Icelandic low are dominant in winter and weaken in the summer.

T or F

True

ENSO is the abbreviation for the El Nino Stable Orientation.

T or F

False

As related to land and sea breezes, inland areas cool faster than offshore areas.

T or F

True

Mountain breezes are most likely to occur during the heat of the day.

T or F

False

Southern Australia is most likely to experience its monsoon rains during July and August.

T or F

False

Normal sea-level air pressure is _____.
-29.92 cm of mercury
-1013.2 millibars
-29.92 millibars
-760 millibars

1013.2 millibars

Air flow is initiated by the
-pressure gradient force.
-Coriolis force.
-friction force.
-centrifugal force.

pressure gradient force.

An increase in air pressure will cause the mercury in a barometer to __________.
-rise
-fall
-freeze
-none of the above-barometers do not measure air pressure

rise

Which of the following does not cause the height of the column of mercury in a barometer to change?
-changes in the pressure of the air exerted on the mercury in the barometer's pan
-changes in the temperature of the air
-changes in the force exerted by the vacuum inside the top of the barometer's tube
-changes in the weight of the air

changes in the force exerted by the vacuum inside the top of the barometer's tube

How would a moving object in Earth's atmosphere be deflected as a result of Earth's rotation?
-to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere

to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere

What is the Coriolis Effect?
-the deflection of moving objects to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-the deflection of moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-the deflection of moving objects to the left in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-the deflection of moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere

the deflection of moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere

Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the North Pole toward the equator?
-toward the left
-toward the North Pole
-toward the equator
-toward the right

toward the right

Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the South Pole toward the equator?
-toward the South Pole
-toward the equator
-toward the left
-toward the right

toward the left

Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the North Pole toward the equator?
-toward the east
-toward the west
-toward the south
-toward the north

toward the west

Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the West Coast of the United States toward the East Coast of the United States?
-toward the north
-toward the south
-toward the west
-toward the east

toward the south

Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the East Coast of the United States toward the West Coast of the United States?
-toward the north
-toward the west
-toward the south
-toward the east

toward the north

Which way would an airplane deflect if flying from the east coast of South Africa toward the west coast of South Africa?
-toward the south
-toward the east
-toward the west
-toward the north

toward the south

Which direction would an airplane deflect if flying across South Africa from the west coast to the east coast?
-toward the west
-toward the south
-toward the north
-toward the east

toward the north

How does wind generally move?
-From areas of higher atmospheric pressure toward areas of lower atmospheric pressure
-From areas of lower atmospheric pressure toward areas of higher atmospheric pressure

From areas of higher atmospheric pressure toward areas of lower atmospheric pressure

What causes the pressure gradient force?
-Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere
-The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
-The earth's rotation

The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another

What causes the Coriolis force?
-The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
-The earth's rotation
-Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere

The earth's rotation

How does the Coriolis force deflect objects in the atmosphere, relative to their original paths?
-To the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-To the left in the Northern Hemisphere and to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
-To the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
-To the left in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere

To the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere

What causes friction forces?
-Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere
-The difference in atmospheric pressure from one location to another
-The earth's rotation

Interaction between wind and surrounding atmosphere

How would wind move if Coriolis and friction forces did not exist?
-Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
-Wind would move straight up in the atmosphere.
-Wind would curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
-Wind would not move.

Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.

How would wind move if pressure gradient and friction forces did not exist?
-Wind would curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
-Wind would not move.
-Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
-Wind would move straight up in the atmosphere.

Wind would not move.

How would wind move if pressure gradient and Coriolis forces did not exist?
-Wind would move directly from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low atmospheric pressure.
-Wind would not move.
-Wind would curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
-Wind would move straight up in the atmosphere.

Wind would not move.

A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as
-an isobar.
-the thermal equator.
-an equilibrium line.
-an isotherm.

an isobar.

Air flows __________ a surface high pressure area because the density of the air in the high pressure zone is __________ than that of the surrounding air.
-out of; more dense
-out of; less dense
-into; more dense
-into; less dense

out of; more dense

What is a cyclone?
-a center of low atmospheric temperature
-a center of high atmospheric pressure
-a center of low atmospheric pressure
-a center of high atmospheric temperature

a center of low atmospheric pressure

Which way does air converge on a cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere?
-toward the equator
-toward the North Pole
-toward the South Pole
-in a counterclockwise direction
-in a clockwise direction

in a counterclockwise direction

Which way does air converge on a cyclone in the Southern Hemisphere?
-toward the equator
-in a counterclockwise direction
-toward the South Pole
-toward the North Pole
-in a clockwise direction

in a clockwise direction

How does air move near the top of a cyclone?
-in the opposite direction to air in the upper atmosphere
-in the same direction as air in the lower atmosphere
-in the opposite direction to air in the lower atmosphere
-in the same direction as air in the upper atmosphere

in the same direction as air in the upper atmosphere

Why are cyclones generally associated with clouds and rain?
-Air in cyclones undergoes cooling as it rises.
-Air in cyclones undergoes warming as it falls.
-Air in cyclones undergoes cooling as it falls.
-Air in cyclones undergoes warming as it rises.

Air in cyclones undergoes cooling as it rises.

What is an anticylone?
-a center of low atmospheric temperature
-a center of low atmospheric pressure
-a center of high atmospheric pressure
-a center of high atmospheric temperature

a center of high atmospheric pressure

Which way does air move in an anticyclone in the Northern Hemisphere?
-down, and in a clockwise direction
-up, and in a counterclockwise direction
-up, and in a clockwise direction
-down, and in a counterclockwise direction

down, and in a clockwise direction

Which way does air move in an anticyclone in the Southern Hemisphere?
-down, and in a counterclockwise direction
-down, and in a clockwise direction
-up, and in a clockwise direction
-up, and in a counterclockwise direction

down, and in a counterclockwise direction

Why are anticyclones not generally associated with clouds and rain?
-Air in anticyclones undergoes cooling as the air rises.
-Air in anticyclones undergoes warming as the air rises.
-Air in anticyclones undergoes cooling as the air descends.
-Air in anticyclones undergoes warming as the air descends.

Air in anticyclones undergoes warming as the air descends.

Where are Hadley cells found?
-in the atmosphere near the poles
-in the water near the equator
-in the water near the poles
-in the atmosphere near the equator

in the atmosphere near the equator

What drives Hadley cell circulation?
-pressure from wind patterns
-heating from volcanism
-heating from the Sun
-pressure from air systems

heating from the Sun

How does the location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) change over time?
-The ITCZ migrates south of the equator in winter and north of the equator in summer.
-The ITCZ migrates north of the equator in Northern Hemisphere winter and south of the equator in Northern Hemisphere summer.
-The ITCZ migrates north of the equator in winter and south of the equator in summer.
-The ITCZ migrates south of the equator in Northern Hemisphere winter and north of the equator in Northern Hemisphere summer.

The ITCZ migrates south of the equator in Northern Hemisphere winter and north of the equator in Northern Hemisphere summer.

When would you expect the low-pressure cell over the North Pole to be most developed?
-during the Northern Hemisphere winter
-during the Northern Hemisphere fall
-during the Northern Hemisphere spring
-during the Northern Hemisphere summer

during the Northern Hemisphere winter

Which areas of Earth experience the most precipitation?
-areas near the polar front
-areas near the ITCZ
-areas near the subtropical highs

areas near the ITCZ

What two features are many of Earth's deserts associated with?
-the subtropical highs and warm ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
-the subtropical lows and cool ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
-the subtropical lows and warm ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents
-the subtropical highs and cool ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents

the subtropical highs and cool ocean currents found along the west coasts of continents

What process cools air as it rises above the equator?
-subductive cooling
-adiabatic cooling
-convective cooling
-advective cooling
-conductive cooling

adiabatic cooling

What is a Hadley cell?
-a large convection cell of ocean water that rises near the equator due to the Coriolis Effect
-a large convection cell of ocean water that rises near the equator due to heating of water
-a large convection cell of air that rises near the equator due to heating of air
-a large convection cell of air that rises near the equator due to the Coriolis Effect

a large convection cell of air that rises near the equator due to heating of air

What is the intertropical convergence zone?
-the region of rising air and low pressure near the equator
-the region of rising air and high pressure near the equator
-the region of falling air and high pressure near the equator
-the region of falling air and low pressure near the equator

the region of rising air and low pressure near the equator

What type of weather would you expect to encounter along the intertropical convergence zone?
-cloudy conditions and high rainfall
-cloudy conditions and low annual rainfall
-mixed cloudy and clear conditions and high rainfall
-cloudy conditions and moderate rainfall
-mixed cloudy and clear conditions and low rainfall

cloudy conditions and high rainfall

What features are found near the subtropical high-pressure systems?
-large Coriolis systems
-large lake systems
-large organic-material-rich systems
-large rain systems
-large desert systems

large desert systems

Where on Earth would you find the trade winds and the westerlies?
-The trade winds occur in the midlatitude regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The westerlies occur between 30º N and 30º S.
-The trade winds occur in the polar regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The westerlies occur between 30º N and 30º S.
-The trade winds occur between 30º N and 30º S. The westerlies occur in the midlatitude regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
-The trade winds occur between 30º N and 30º S. The westerlies occur in the polar regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

The trade winds occur between 30º N and 30º S. The westerlies occur in the midlatitude regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Where are the antitrade winds located?
-next to the trade winds
-above the trade winds
-behind the trade winds
-in front of the trade winds
-below the trade winds

above the trade winds

What type of weather would you expect to encounter along the polar front?
-clear conditions and little precipitation
-clear conditions and abundant precipitation
-cloudy conditions and abundant precipitation
-cloudy conditions and little precipitation

cloudy conditions and abundant precipitation

Where are the jet streams located?
-The subtropical jet is above the boundary between trade winds and easterlies, while the polar jet is above the boundary between westerlies and easterlies.
-The subtropical jet is located above the subtropical low, and the polar jet is located above the polar high.
-The subtropical jet is above the boundary between the trade winds and the westerlies, and the polar jet is located above the polar high.
-The subtropical jet is located above the subtropical high, and the polar jet is located above the Polar Front.

The subtropical jet is located above the subtropical high, and the polar jet is located above the Polar Front.

What are jet streams?
-bands of high-speed wind found at elevations of 9-15 km
-Bands of high-speed wind found at elevations of 5-9 km
-Bands of low-speed wind found at elevations of 5-9 km
-bands of low-speed wind found at elevations of 9-15 km

bands of high-speed wind found at elevations of 9-15 km

In which direction do jet streams generally travel?
-west to east
-north to south
-east to west
-south to north

west to east

Where are the two main hemispheric jet streams located?
-above 60 degrees latitude and below 30 degrees latitude
-between 50 and 60 degrees latitude and at about 30 degrees latitude
-between 50 and 60 degrees longitude and at about 30 degrees longitude
-above 60 degrees longitude and below 30 degrees longitude

between 50 and 60 degrees latitude and at about 30 degrees latitude

What are Rossby waves?
-major undulations in the path of a jet stream
-minor undulations in the Earth's orbital parameters
-major undulations in Earth's orbital parameters
-minor undulations in the path of a jet stream

major undulations in the path of a jet stream

How can the jet stream return to normal zonal flow after Rossby waves build?
-through separation of a mass of cold air from the jet stream
-through separation of a mass of cold water from the jet stream
-through addition of a mass of cold air to the jet stream
-through addition of a mass of cold water to the jet stream

through separation of a mass of cold air from the jet stream

Thermohaline circulation
-is driven by frictional drag of winds.
-is driven by less-salty polar water.
-transports greater volumes of water than surface currents.
-is driven by western intensification.

transports greater volumes of water than surface currents.

The great circulations in the ocean basins occur around the __________ pressure systems and are known as __________.
-subtropical high; ocean streams
-subpolar low; ocean streams
-subpolar low; gyres
-subtropical high; gyres

subtropical high; gyres

Ocean currents are produced by
-land-sea breezes.
-the Coriolis force and water density differences.
-the frictional drag of winds.
-the frictional drag of winds, the Coriolis force, and water density differences

the frictional drag of winds, the Coriolis force, and water density differences

How much of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans?
-Almost none of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-One-quarter of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-Almost all of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-Three-quarters of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.
-Half of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.

Almost all of Earth's surface water exists in the oceans.

Which ocean is Earth's largest?
-the Indian Ocean
-the Arctic Ocean
-the Atlantic Ocean
-the Pacific Ocean

the Pacific Ocean

Where is most of Earth's freshwater found?
-as liquid below Earth's surface
-as liquid at Earth's surface
-as ice below Earth's surface
-as ice at Earth's surface

as ice at Earth's surface

What does the hydrologic cycle describe?
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and rivers.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and solid water move between the ocean, atmosphere and rivers.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and solid water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.
-The hydrologic cycle describes how solid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.

The hydrologic cycle describes how liquid and gaseous water move between the ocean, atmosphere, and land.

How does water get from the oceans onto land?
-Ocean water condenses to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it evaporates into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form solid water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into gaseous water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.
-Ocean water evaporates to form liquid water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.

Ocean water evaporates to form gaseous water and moves into the atmosphere, where it condenses into liquid water and falls out of the atmosphere to land as rain.

What would happen to atmospheric water if Earth were mostly covered with land?
-The atmosphere would contain warmer water.
-The atmosphere would contain colder water.
-The atmosphere would contain less water.
-The atmosphere would contain more water.

The atmosphere would contain less water.

What would happen to the oceans if surface runoff and groundwater flow were reduced (for example, by the growth of ice sheets during an ice age)?
-The oceans would become smaller.
-The oceans would become bigger.
-The oceans would stay the same size.

The oceans would become smaller.

Which of the following is true of the distribution of land and water on Earth?
-The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water.
-The Northern Hemisphere is dominated by water.
-They are evenly distributed in both hemispheres.

The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water.

Which of the following is true regarding the amount of water in rivers, streams, and the atmosphere?
- Their volume is 1/10 the volume of water in fresh water lakes.
- They contain 0.033 percent of the world's fresh water supply.
- The total amount of water in these locations is equal to 14,250 km3 (3400 mi3).
- All of these are correct.

All of these are correct.

What must break in order for water to change from solid to liquid to gas?
-Covalent bonds between water molecules
-Hydrogen bonds within water molecules
-Covalent bonds within water molecules
-Ionic bonds within water molecules
-Hydrogen bonds between water molecules

Hydrogen bonds between water molecules

How much heat energy is needed to melt 1 gram of ice?
-8 calories of heat energy
-80 calories of heat energy
-800 calories of heat energy
-8000 calories of heat energy

80 calories of heat energy

Why does temperature NOT initially increase as energy is added after ice begins to melt?
-The added energy is used to form hydrogen bonds within water molecules.
-The added energy is used to break hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
-The added energy is used to form hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
-The added energy is used to break hydrogen bonds within water molecules.

The added energy is used to break hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

What physically breaks hydrogen bonds between water molecules as ice melts?
-Covalent bonds of water molecules
-The mass of water molecules
-The polarity of water molecules
-The movement of water molecules

The movement of water molecules

What do we call the energy used to melt ice once the ice becomes water?
-Latent heat of condensation
-Latent heat of vaporization
-Latent heat of fusion
-Latent heat of melting

Latent heat of melting

How much heat energy is needed to turn 1 gram of water at 100 degrees Celsius into water vapor?
-5.4 calories of heat energy
-54 calories of heat energy
-540 calories of heat energy
-5400 calories of heat energy

540 calories of heat energy

How can water vapor become ice?
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the release of heat energy, and then become ice through the release of more heat energy. Water vapor cannot become ice directly through the release of heat energy.
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the addition of heat energy, and then become ice through the addition of more heat energy. Water vapor can also become ice directly through the addition of heat energy.
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the addition of heat energy, and then become ice through the addition of more heat energy. Water vapor cannot become ice directly through the addition of heat energy.
-Water vapor can become liquid water through the release of heat energy, and then become ice through the release of more heat energy. Water vapor can also become ice directly through the release of heat energy.

Water vapor can become liquid water through the release of heat energy, and then become ice through the release of more heat energy. Water vapor can also become ice directly through the release of heat energy.

_________ of heat is released when one gram of water vapor condenses into liquid water.
-540 calories
-720 calories
-80 calories
-620 calories

540 calories

When water freezes, its volume
-increases.
-decreases.
-remains the same as in the liquid state.

increases.

Relative humidity refers to __________.
-mb of water vapor in the air
-the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor possible
-the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the temperature of the air
-the amount of water vapor in the air per kilogram of air

the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor possible

The capacity of the air to hold water vapor is basically a function of
-the water vapor content.
-latent heat.
-the temperature of both the water vapor and the air.
-freezing temperature.

the temperature of both the water vapor and the air.

If the saturation vapor pressure increases while the amount of water vapor in the air remains constant, this would indicate
- that the air was cooling by expansion.
- that the temperature had increased.
- that the temperature had decreased as a result of the loss of heat energy.
- none of the above

that the temperature had increased.

What causes the development of most clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere?
-rising density
-rising air
-rising oceans
-rising temperature

rising air

Why would a parcel of air rise relative to other air in the atmosphere?
-A parcel of air will rise if the air in the parcel has a lower mass than the surrounding air.
-A parcel of air will rise if the air in the parcel has a higher mass than the surrounding air.
-A parcel of air will rise if it has a higher density than the surrounding air.
-A parcel of air will rise if it has a lower density than the surrounding air.

A parcel of air will rise if it has a lower density than the surrounding air.

Which factor is most important for determining the density of a parcel of air?
-pressure
-mass
-gravity
-volume
-temperature

temperature

What will happen if a parcel of air is colder than surrounding air?
Choose all that apply.
-A colder parcel of air will sink in the atmosphere if forced.
-A colder parcel of air will sink in the atmosphere on its own.
-A colder parcel of air will rise in the atmosphere if forced.
-A colder parcel of air will rise in the atmosphere on its own.

-A colder parcel of air will sink in the atmosphere on its own.
-A colder parcel of air will rise in the atmosphere if forced.

What will happen to a parcel of air as it rises?
-A rising parcel of air will contract and heat.
-A rising parcel of air will expand and heat.
-A rising parcel of air will expand and cool.
-A rising parcel of air will contract and cool.

A rising parcel of air will expand and cool.

If two parcels of air start at the same temperature at 2000 meters above Earth's surface, which would end up with a higher temperature, an unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface or a saturated parcel of air 4000 meters above Earth's surface?
-An unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface would be warmer, since adiabatic temperature changes are greater for unsaturated than for saturated air, regardless of any temperature difference due to changes in elevation.
-An unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface would be warmer, since air cools as it rises and warms as it descends, regardless of any temperature difference due to saturation.
-A saturated parcel of air at 4000 meters above Earth's surface would be warmer, since air warms as it rises and cools as it descends, regardless of any temperature difference due to saturation.
-A saturated parcel of air 4000 meters above Earth's surface would be warmer, since adiabatic temperature changes are greater for saturated than for unsaturated air, regardless of any temperature difference due to changes in elevation.

An unsaturated parcel of air at Earth's surface would be warmer, since air cools as it rises and warms as it descends, regardless of any temperature difference due to saturation.

Two parcels of air, one dry and one wet, sit at the same temperature at sea level. What will the temperature difference between the two bodies of air be after they rise to 2000 meters elevation?
-The dry parcel of air will be 12 degrees warmer than the wet parcel of air.
-The dry parcel of air will be 12 degrees colder than the wet parcel of air.
-The dry parcel of air will be 8 degrees warmer than the wet parcel of air.
-The dry parcel of air will be 8 degrees colder than the wet parcel of air.

The dry parcel of air will be 8 degrees colder than the wet parcel of air.

In general, when will clouds begin to form out of a parcel of air?
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature above its dew point
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature above its Lifting Condensation Level
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature below its dew point
-when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature below its Lifting Condensation Level

when a rising parcel of air has reached a temperature below its dew point

Which process can add heat to a rising body of air?
-condensation
-rising
-depressurizing
-precipitation

condensation

The wet adiabatic rate __________.
- is higher than the dry rate
- is less than the dry rate
- is always the same as the environmental lapse rate
- varies with temperature

is less than the dry rate

An air parcel is considered unstable when it
- either remains as it is, or changes its initial position.
- continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature.
- it resists displacement upward.
- it ceases to ascend.

continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature.

Clouds are classified based on their _____.
- humidity and temperature
- shape and water content
- altitude and shape
- size and shape
- size and water content

altitude and shape

Which of these types of fog would you find after a clear night, especially over moist ground?
- evaporation fog
- advection fog
- radiation fog
- upslope fog

radiation fog

Condensation nuclei over the ocean consist primarily of
- minute fragments of sea shells.
- pieces of coral.
- salt particles.
- clay particles.

salt particles.

Weather is
-the climate of a region.
- the short-term condition of the atmosphere.
- a reference to temperature patterns only.
- the long-term atmospheric condition, including extremes that may occur

the short-term condition of the atmosphere.

Over the last two decades, costs for weather-related destruction has, on an annual basis,
- decreased.
- increased two-fold.
- increased five-fold.
- stayed about the same

increased five-fold.

Air masses are classified according to their_____.
- temperature and source region
- temperature alone
- moisture content alone
- temperature, humidity, and stability
- moisture and temperature

temperature and source region

Air masses which develop over Canada are examples of __________ air masses.
- mT
- mP
- cT
- cP

cP

Given a cP air mass and cT air mass with the same relative humidity, which air mass would have higher specific humidity?
- The cT air mass would have the higher specific humidity.
- The cP air mass would have the higher specific humidity.
- The specific humidity of both would be the same because their relative humidities are the same.
- It is impossible to say what would usually be true of their specific humidities

The cT air mass would have the higher specific humidity.

A mT air mass is likely to be __________ than a cT air mass because the mT air mass __________.
-drier; is a cold air mass
- drier; forms under the equatorial low
- wetter; is warmer than the cT air mass
- wetter; forms over the ocean
- hotter; forms over the ocean

wetter; forms over the ocean

What is a front?
-the boundary between two water masses of different size
-the boundary between two land masses of different temperatures
-the boundary between two water masses of different temperatures
-the boundary between two air masses of different size
-the boundary between two air masses of different temperatures

the boundary between two air masses of different temperatures

Where does rain occur in a warm front?
-Rain occurs along and to the left of a warm front.
-Rain occurs along and in front of a warm front.
-Rain occurs along and to the right of a warm front.
-Rain occurs along and behind a warm front.

Rain occurs along and in front of a warm front.

Where does rain occur in a cold front?
-Rain occurs along and behind a cold front.
-Rain occurs along and in front of a cold front.
-Rain occurs along and to the right of a cold front.
-Rain occurs along and to the left of a cold front.

Rain occurs along and behind a cold front.

How are rain patterns different near warm and cold fronts?
-Rain near a cold front occurs over a wider spatial area and is more intense than near a cold front.
-Rain near a warm front occurs over a smaller spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.
-Rain near a cold front occurs over a smaller spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.
-Rain near a warm front occurs over a wider spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.

Rain near a warm front occurs over a wider spatial area and is less intense than near a cold front.

How are cold and warm fronts different?
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is older.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is larger.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is moving.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is higher.
-The type of front is determined by which air mass is heavier.

The type of front is determined by which air mass is moving.

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