Health Science

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Atmosphere and air pollution

Anthropomophic (Al Gore)

Carbon dioxide levels are going up.
Burning fossil fuels and clearing forests dramatically increases co2.
Carbon Dioxide traps solar heat.
Temperatures are rising.
Glaciers are melting.
Plants and animals are being forced from their habitat.
The number of storms and droughts are increasing.
Malaria has spread to higher temperatures.
Sea levels rise by 20 feet.

Non Anthropomophic (Glen Beck)

Some sea levels have risen and some have dropped.
Hurricanes cause more dollar damages because people are building more expensive beachfront houses.
Glaciers are being created and growing in other areas.
No evidence that CO2 causes global warming.
We have more polar bears than ever.
Earths temperatures are always changing.

Kyoto Protocol

Treaty was signed in Dec. 1997.
Original goal was to hold energy consumption at 1990 levels.
Does not cover developing states, including China and India.

Atmosphere Components

78% Nitrogen
21% Oxygen
.09% Argon
.03 CO2

Troposphere

8-9 Miles

Statosphere

30 miles
Where Ozone is located

Mesosphere

50 miles

Ozone

Ozone absorbing UV
Oxgen reforming as O3
Ozone broken down by Chlorine
CFC'c and Ozone
Chlorine reservoir

Ozone hole

September to November-Peaks in October.
Some attribut to HFC's.
Some to magnetics, cosmic radiation.
Solar flares.
Cold during winter period.
The hole is getting smaller.

Air Pollution- Natural

Volcanoes
Dust Storms
Fires

Air Pollution-Anthropomorphic

Cars/Transportation
Electric Power
Industry
Air Planes

Health Effects of Air Pollution

Concentration from inversions-kills many people
Illnesses- Ashthmas and burning eyes

Health Effects of Air Pollution

Irritants
- Mucous membranes, eyes, lungs
Inhibit body defenses
- Clilia slowed or stopped
-Mucous thickened
-Macrphages slowed
Fibrosis/ wall thickening
-Lesions:heal and scar

Air pollution. Particulate matter Sources

Solid or Liquid pollutants
-Dust, dirt,soot,smoke,and liquid
-Often visible
Sources
-Traffic
Fuel combustion
Tire rubber
-Agriculture
-Fires

Air pollution. Effects of Pariculate Matter

Respiratory Irritant
-Associated with increased hospital and emergency room visits
-Associated with owrk and school absences
-Ashthma and decreased lung function
Visual Impairment
-Haze
Deposition
-Layer of grime-Az windshield
-Cover fruits
-Candles

Air pollution. Particulate Matter

Types
-pm 10 less than 10 microns
-pm 2.5 less than 2.5 microns
Testing
-High volume air sampler
Like a vaccume
-Measured oriface
-Pre-weighed MCE filters
Standards
-24 hr Sample 150 ug/m3
-Annual mean 50ug/m3
-2.5 -65/15

Air Pollution. Carbon Monoxide

Characteristics
-Colorless, Odorless, Toxic
Sources
-Incomplete Combustion
-Outdoors- Cars, Indoors-Cigarettes
Effects
-Depend of time and Conc.
-Bonds to hemoglobin
-Head aches, dizziness, death

Air Pollution. CO Testing and Standards

Testing
-Sensor cells
-Infrared absorbtion
-Colorimetric tubes
-Car emission testing
Standards
-8hr-9ppm
-1hr- 35ppm
-Not to be exceeded more than once per year.

Air Pollution. Nitrogen Oxides

Characteristics
-Nox= NO+No2
-Pungent sweet odor
Sources
-Combustion at high temps
-Power plants, cars
Effects
-Yellow in smog
-Lung irritation, pbuemonia
-Stunts plants and leaves
-Acid rain- NOx+H2O=HNO3
-Precurser to Ozone

Air Pollution. NOx Testing and Standards

Testing
-Chemiluminescent Monitor
-Direct Reading Tubes
Standards
-Annual mean

Air Pollution. Ozone

Characteristics
-Pungent colorless gas
Sources
-Combustion
-Copy Machines
Effects
-Lung, eye irritation
-Cracks rubber, fades paint\
-O3 is a photochemical oxidant
-Reacts with HC's and VOC's to make photochemical smog
-Plant damage-CA trees

Air Pollution- Ozone Testing and Standards

Testing
-Chemilumnesence
-Photomultiplier tube
-Draeger tube
Standards
-8hr avg. 008 ppm
-1hr avg. 0.12 ppm

Air Pollution. Sulfer Dioxide

Characteristics
-Colorless Gas
-Dissolve easily in water
Sources
-Coal and oil combustion
-Refineries
Effects
-little harm by itself
-Acid rain- SO2+H2O= H2SO4
Plants, Lakes, Statues, Buildings
-Irritant, Corrosive, Toxic to plants
-Visibility- Haze

Air Pollution. Sulfer Dioxide Testing and Standards

Testing
-EPA Method 8
-Line of impingers
-IPA, H202, Silica Gel
-Stack scrubbers
Standards
-24 hr -0.14ppm
-Annual Mean -0.03 ppm

Air Pollution. Lead

Characteristics
-Metal
Sources
-Paint
-Cars, Pipes
Effects
-Toxic effect on development of children
-CNS blood and kidneys

Air Pollution. Lead Testing and Standards

High volume sampler
-MCE filter
-Lead extracted by Nitric acid
-AA machine
Standards
-Maximum quarterly avg -1.5

Air Pollution. Auto Emissions

# 1 source of outdoor pollutants
-Auto pollution dropped 89% with tech
-Catalytic converter
N2
CO2
VOC's
NOx
-Reduction Reaction: Catalysts takes N Leaving O2
-Oxidation Reaction: Catalyst add O2 to CO to make CO2
-Control System: Monitors exhaust and adds O2 to improve combustion of HCs, and Vocs in the converter.

Air Pollution. Auto Emission- Allowance Trading

-Allowance Trading: Attainment
-1 allowance per ton
-Collective ceiling
-Buy and sell allowances
-Economic Motivation to improve

Air Pollution. Auto Emission- Offsetting

-Purchase more allowances than received
-Excess allowances taken from ceiling

Indoor Air Pollution

-80-90 time at home or indoors
-5-7% in transit
-5% outside
-Inside concentrations higher, but when lowe exposure is longer
-In cars
-planes
Hockey rincks-zamboni

Indoor Air Pollution. IAQ

Types of sources
Combudtion by products
-Stoves, furnace- CO,CO2,PM,Form
-Candles
Microbial and allergens
-Humidifiers, pets, insects, mites, dander
-Carpets
-Legionaires disease
VOC's- Formaldehyde
-building materials, adhesives, carpet, drapes, furnature
-Eye discomfort,irritation,edema
-Cabinets

Indoor Air Pollution. IAQ

-Asbestos fibers
-Tobacco smoke
-Particulate-fiber glass,silica,metal dust
-Bio-particulate
Insect parts, epithelial cells, pollins, spores
-Radon
#2 cause of lung cancer
55% dose of radiation
1 in 15 homes has high levels
Homes can be fixed
* Action Levels 4 Picocuries per liter AL
Cant see or smell

Indoor Air Pollution. Sick bulilding syndrome

-People get sick
-Energy efficient building
-Air tight and humid

Indoor Air Pollution. IAQ Testing

Questionaires
General Air
-Temp 68-72
-CO2 350 outside, 1000-Ventilation
Microbial, bacterial
Particulate- Bioparticulate, fiber glass, insect parts
VOC's- Carbo traps, canisters,tedlar bag
Formaldehyde-tubes badges, passive
Legionairres Disease
Asbestos
Radon

10 indoor polutants and sources

Fireplace-CO
Dryer-Particulate Matter
Humidifier-Mold
Cabinets-Formaldihide
Wood Panneling-Formaldihide
Carpet-Mold, Bacteria
Air Conditioning unit- bacteria, bioformaldihide
Chemicals-VOCs
Car-Carbon Monoxide
Drapes, furnature-Formaldihide
Shower curtain-Mold
Bed-VOC's, Formaldihide
Basement-Radon
Cigarette smoke-Carbon Monoxide
Computer-VOC's
Copy Machine-Ozone, VOC's
Chemical-VOC's
Cars-Carbon monoxide
Chairs-Formaldihide
Plants-Mold

Mold

-Part of the Fungi Kingdom
-Mold is a decomposer
-Over 1,000,000 different species of mold
-One-third of the earths crust
-Ubiquitous (everywhere)

Size of Mold

Between 3 and 8 Microns
Visible dust 50 to 100 microns
250,000 spores on a pin
4 inches of mold=12 billion spores

Mold Cycle

1.Spores
2.Hyphae
3.Mycelial Fragments
4.Fruiting Bodies
5.Conidiophore
6.Conidia
7.Spores
8.Colonies

Mold Triangle

Food source
Water
Temperature

Mold Temperature

Optimum
-20-30 C
Thermophilic
-Asp. Fumigatas
-Surgery
Mesophilic
-Most Common
Phsychrophiles
-<0

Mold Hype

The press
-ABC,CBC, 20/20
Lawsuits
-Texas 32m
Non-Regulated Industry
-Attorneys, remediators, inspectors, activist physicians
Uncertainty
-CDC study
Information Society

Mold. Health Effects

Allergies
-Itchy eyes, running nose
-10% of population
Infections- lung- PCH
Toxicological Effects-questionalble
-Peanut Farmers
-Farmers Lung
Immuno Compromised-AIDS
Dose Response

Sampling Process

First step is identification
Testing for mold or spores
Surface sampling
-Tape-Mold or spores
-Swab-Mold of spores
Air Sampling
-Spore trap/ zefon
-Biocassette
-Plates

Noise Sources

Occupational exposures
Vehicles
Plane
Appliances
Power tools
Animal Barking

Sound

Any vibrating object+ Any transmitting medium

Effects of noise (hearing loss)

-standard threshold shift, or STS
-Change of 10 decibels or more at 2000, 3000, 4000 hertz in one or both ears
-TTS temporary Threshold shift
-Tinnitus-ringing in ears
-Sensorinueral-inner ear is involved
-Conductive-outer ear is involved
-Presbycusis-gradual increase of hearing loss

Noise regulations

Environmental
-Outdoor activity interference and annoyancep- 55 dBA
-Outdoor industrial- 65 dBA fenceline
Occupational
-OSHA
-85 dBA action level
Hearing conservation program
Hearing Protection (voluntary)
90 dBA permissibel exposure limit
Testing of all noise
Hearing Conservation Program
Signs
Engineering Controls
Hearing protection mandatory

Hearing Conservation Program

1.Monitor noise levels
2.Perform audiometric testing
3.Select appropriate Hearing Protection Devices
4.Educate and Train affected employees
5.Do the recordkeeping

Sound Meters

Sound level Meter
-Provides a snapshot
-Immidiate results
-Measures loudness in decibels
Octave Band Analyzer
-Noise at certain frequencies
-Used for controls

Noise Dosimeter

8-12 hour testing
worn by the individual during the day
Measures the sound near the entrance near the entrance to the ear
Measures the amount of noise encountered continuously as the individual goes about the days work

Octave Band Analyzer

Noise at certain frequences
Used for controls

Audiometric testing

Baseline
Annual
-Treshhold shifts

Training

Initial
Follow up
-Yearly with Audiometric tests

Control Hierarchy

Engineering
-Shielding
-Absorption
-Vibration dampening
-enclosure
Administration
-Worker Rotation
PPE
-Earplugs
-Ear muffs

Types of record keeping

1. Employee exposure records-2 years
2.Audiometric tests-length of employment to 25 years

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