Standing erect, arms at the sides, with eyes and palms facing forward.(Regardless of actual body position)
Lying horizontal on the back with the face up
Lying horizontal face down (opposite of supine)
A ﬂat surface resulting from a real or imaginary cut through a body in the normal anatomical position.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Divides the body vertically into front and back portions.
Midsagittal (Medial) Plane
Divides the body vertically into equal right and left portions.
Divides the body vertically into right and left portions
Divides the body horizontally into upper and lower portions
Large hollow spaces where various organs of the body are housed
1. Dorsal Cavities
Are located in the back of the body and include the cranial & spinal cavities.
Houses the brain
Encases the spinal cord
2. Ventral Cavities
Are located in the front of the body and include the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Houses the Heart & Lungs
Houses the Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Spleen & Kidneys.
Houses the Urinary bladder & Reproductive organs
"Steady state" or "Standing the same" the state of equilibrium or balance. This process involves feedback and regulation in response to internal and external changes.
Is the sum of all the physical and chemical reactions necessary to sustain life
A destructive process by which complex substances are broken down into simple substances, usually with the release of energy.
A constructive process by which the body converts simple compounds in complex substance needed to carry out the cellular activities of the body.
4 Types of tissue
Connective, Epithelial, Muscle, & Nerve
Connective tissue supports and connects all parts of the body and includes adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage,bone, and blood.
Epithelial tissue covers and protects the body and lines organs, vessels, and cavities.
Contracts to produce movement
Has the ability to transmit electrical impulses
Functions of the skeletal system
The framework that gives the body shape and support, protects internal organs, and with the muscular system provides movement and leverage. It is also responsible for calcium storage and hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis, the production of blood cells, which normally occurs in the bone marrow.
Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis
The production of blood cells, which normally occurs in the bone marrow.
Flat bone shape
Rib bones & most skull (cranial) bones
Irregular bone shape
Back bones (vertebrae) and some facial bones
Long bone shape
Leg (femur, tibia, ﬁ bula), arm (humerus, radius, ulna), and hand bones (metacarpals, phalanges)
Short bone shape
Wrist (carpals) and ankle bones (tarsals)
Bones important in blood collection
Distal phalanx of the finger & the calcaneus or heel of the foot
Gives the body the ability to move, maintain posture, and produce heat. It also plays a role in organ function and blood circulation. Has the ability to contract, which produces movement.
Smooth muscle type
Wall of hollow organs, vessels, respiratory passageways. Involuntary control. Produces peristalsis. Contracts & relaxes slowly.
Cardiac muscle type
Wall of heart. Involuntary control. Pumps blood out of heart. Influenced by nervous system & hormones.
Skeletal muscle type
Attached to bones. Voluntary control. Produces movement at joints. Stimulated by nervous system. Contracts & relaxes rapidly.
The skin and accessory structures within it form this system. This term means: "covering" or "skin."
Is the largest organ of the body
Epidermis (skin layer)
Outermost and thinnest layer of the skin
Does not contain any blood or lymph vessels
Dermis (skin layer)
The inner layer of the skin (also called corium or true skin) Contains blood & lymph vessels. This layer has capillaries, veins & arteries.
Subcutaneous (skin layer)
(Beneath the skin) is composed of connective and adipose (fat) tissue that connects the skin to the surface muscle.
controls and coordinates activities of the various body systems by means of electrical impulses and chemical substances sent to and received from all parts of the body. This system has two functional divisions, the somatic and the autonomic systems, identiﬁed by the type of control (voluntary or involuntary)
Highly complex cells that are capable of conducting messages in the form of impulses that enable the body to interact with its internal and external environment. Distinguished by unique thread-like ﬁbers called dendrites and axons. The dendrites carry messages to the nerve cell body, while axons carry messages away from it
Central nervous system
Consists of the brain, the nervous system command center that interprets information and dictates responses, and the spinal cord. Every part of the body is in direct communication with it by means of its own set of nerves, which come together in one large trunk that forms the spinal cord.
(CSF) Cerebrospinal fluid
A cavity fill with clear plasma-like fluid which surrounds and cushions the brain & spinal cord.
3 layers of connective tissue which encloses and protects the cavity.
(A spinal tap) Performed by a physician to enter the cavity and obtain a CSF sample.
Peripheral nervous system
Consists of all the nerves that connect the CNS to every part of the body
Two main types of nervous
Motor & Efferent
Carries impulses from the CNS to organs, glands, and muscles.
Carries impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors in various parts of the body.
Greek words meaning "within" and
"to secrete." This system consists of a group of ductless glands that secrete substances called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Often called the master gland of this system because it secretes hormones that stimulate the other glands. Found in the brain & stimulates the adrenal glands. Secretes directly into blood stream.
(HCG) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
A hormone secreted by embryonic cells that eventually give rise to the placenta during pregnancy.
(FSH) Follicle-stimulating hormone
Stimulates development of ova and sperm and the secretion of reproductive hormones
(TSH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Controls thyroid activity
Needed for movement of glucose into the cells and decreases blood glucose levels
Increases blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to release glucose (stored as glycogen) into the bloodstream
Old names for digestive system Bonus
Alimentary canal or GI tract
Provides the means by which the body takes in food, breaks it down into usable components for absorption, and eliminates waste products from this process
8 Digestive Functions (In order)
1.Mouth, 2.Pharynx, 3.Larynx, 4.Esophagus, 5.Stomach, 6.Sm Intestines, 7.Lg Intestines, 8.Rectum/Anus
Produces the gametes, sex or germ cells, that are needed to form a new human being.
Spermatozoa or sperm
Ova or eggs
6 Female structures
1.Ovaries, 2,Fallopian tubes, 3.Uterus, 4.Cervix, 5.Vagina, 6.Vulva
6 Male structures
1.Testes, 2.Prostrate, 3.Epididymis, 4.Urethra, 5.Penis, 6.Scrotum
Filters waste products from the blood and eliminates them from the body. It also plays an important role in the regulation of body ﬂuids. Result in the creation and elimination of urine.
4 Urinary structures
2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, Urinary bladder & Urethra
Delivers a constant supply of oxygen (O2) to all the cells of the body and removes carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of cell metabolism.
Respiration permits the exchange of O2
and CO2 between the blood and the air and involves two processes, external respiration
and internal respiration.During external respiration, O2 from the air enters the bloodstream in the lungs and CO2 leaves the bloodstream and is breathed into the air from the lungs. During internal respiration, O2 leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells in the tissues, and CO2
from the cells enters the bloodstream.
Gas exchange is the process in which there is a pick up of oxygen and a release of carbon dioxide in the alveoli...
Gas Exchange process
Blood filled with CO2 runs from the body to the heart and to the lungs. Here it will pass through membranes in the alveoli. It will then deposits the CO2 and pick up O2 from the air you breathe in. It then makes a trip back to the heart and out to the rest of the body. Once the body uses up that cycle of O2, it then sends it back again (loaded with CO2) to repeat the process continuously.
1. The transverse plane divides the body:
Horizontally into upper and lower portions.
3. The process by which the body maintains a state of equilibrium is:
5. What type of muscle lines the walls of blood vessels?
6. Which of the following is an accessory organ of the digestive system?
7. Evaluation of the endocrine system involves:
8. The spinal cord and brain are covered by protective membranes called:
10. Most gas exchange between blood and tissue takes place in the