The ANS contains what 2 groups of neurons?
Motor output to involuntary muscles
Sensor input from organs
Describe the SNS
"fight or flight"
What are body responses to the SNS
increased heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation
Describe the PNS
"rest and digest"
T/F SNS and PNS can be activated at same time
What do the sympathetic splanchnic nerves innervated?
visceral organs, blood vessels
What cardiovascular structures are innervated?
Heart and blood vessels
What does the adrenal medulla do and what NT?
Releases Epi and Norepi to accentuate sympathetic response
What structures are innervated by the SNS?
Heart, blood vessels, adrenal medulla, bronchial, digestive sphincters, sweat glands
What NT is released at the neuromuscular junction in SNS?
Norepi is synthesized from...?
What structures are innervated by the PNS?
SA & AV nodes, bronchial smooth muscle, digestive smooth muscle, urinary tract and bladder smooth muscle
What are the nerve pathways in the PNS?
Cranial nerves and sacral splanchnic nerves
What are the nerve pathways in the SNS?
Sympathetic splanchnic nerves (originating T1-L2)
Follow a nerve in the SNS
Pregang symp motor neurons enter symp trunk out to organs at simp splanchnic nerve
What NT is released at neuromuscular junction in the PNS?
Name the adrenergic receptors
Alpha 1, Beta 1, Beta 2
Where are alpha 1 receptors located?
Major arteries, arteries/arterioles of digestive tract, skin arterioles
What activity do alpha 1 receptors have?
Adrenergic receptors are receptors for...
Where are beta 1 receptors located?
SA/AV nodes and ventricular myocardium
What activity do beta 1 receptors have?
Where are beta 2 receptors located?
coronary arteries and arterioles to skeletal muscles
What activity do beta 2 receptors have?
Norepi has a ______ affinity for alpha receptors
Epi and norepi have ______ affinity for beta 1 receptors
Epi has _______ affinity for beta 2 receptors
What & how metabolic effect does epi have on plasma glucose levels? receptor?
increased glucose cuz mobilizes carbs in liver
What & how metabolic effect does epi have on insulin and glucose levels? receptor?
inhibits insulin/ stim glucagon which increases blood glucose alpha 2
What metabolic effect does dpi have on pancreatic enzymes? receptor?
decreased pancreatic enzymes cause digestive activities to shut down "fight or flight" alpha 2
Name the cholinergic receptors
muscarinic and nicotinic
Where are muscarinic receptors located?
effector organs of the PNS (SA/AV) and motor endplate on skeletal muscle cells
What activity do muscarinic receptors have?
effector organs: varies
Muscle cells: excitatory
Where are nicotinic receptors located?
dendrites of post-gang motor neurons of SNS and PNS
What activity do nicotinic receptors have?
Cholinergic receptors are receptors for...
What is the formula cardiac output
CO=stroke volume x Heart rate
What does cardiac output measure?
how much blood is being pumped
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on heart rate?
Norepi/epi effect B1 receptors to decrease membrane perm to K+
What is the effect of PNS stim on heart rate?
ACh on muscarinic receptors increase membrane perm to K+
What effect of stretching SA node on heart rate?
causes SA node depolarization at faster rate
What is the effect of sympathetic stim on cardiac contractility?
Norepi/epi effect B1 receptors to increase membrane perm to Ca++ Engages T/T complex
What is the effect of parasymp stim on cardiac contractility?
Indirect inhibition of SNS decreasing beta 1 effect on contractility
What is the frank-starling law?
The greater the heart muscle is stretched during filling the greater the force of contraction and greater quantity of blood pumped
What is the mechanism with Frank-starling law?
When ventricle is dilated from increased ventricle return, actin/myosin more optimally aligned. If heart w/o O2 unable to contract so actin/myosin overlap
What is preload?
the end diastolic volume is directly related to pressure on ventricles. High blood = High preload
What are the factors affecting preload?
renal failure with fluid retention and fluid overload
What is afterload?
amount of pressure in the arteries.
What do increased afterloads lead to?
High myocardial demand cuz harder to move through arteries
What factors affect afterload?
Increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to systemic artery vaso and increase Pulm vascular resistance (PVR) due to plum art vasocon
When does coronary perfusion occur
How does sympathetic regulation effect coronary circulation?
List the steps of coronary circulation via release of adenosine
high myocardial O2 need-->release of adenosine by cardiac muscle-->vasodilation of coronary arteries-->increased blood flow & O2 to heart muscle
What are the fuel sources for myocardial metabolism?
fatty acids, lactic acids, ketones, AA's
Why is aerobic metabolism essential to cardiac function?
without ATP drops and O2 is interrupted=ischmic