What was the overall goal of the Congress of Vienna?
Create a new framework of peace, security and stability in Europe
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain? (There are 3 reasons)
--Economic stability: Stable banking system, farmers and businessmen could take out loans, lots of trade overseas
--Political stability: military success led population to believe in the future of Britain, parliament passed laws that protected business ventures, basically Britain had what is called factors of production (ideal conditions for industrialization)
What did Jethro Tull invent? What was its purpose?
The seed drill
To make sure seeds could germinate
What did Richard Trevithick invent?
First steam powered locomotive
City development and movement of people into cities
Why did many people leave their farms during the agricultural revolution? Where did they go?
--Farm land was being purchased by wealthy land owners who were creating larger farms + people could make more money in the city
Before steam engines what did factories depend on for power? Where were they built?
Who got labor unions started? Why?
--Wanted better working conditions and higher pay. And since they were harder to replace they had extra bargaining power
Which act was passed 1799 and 1800?
The Combinations Act
What did the Combination Acts do?
Outlawed associations of workers
What did the Combination Acts fail to do?
Prevent the formation of trade unions
Which act was passed in 1833?
The Factory Act
What did the Factory Act do?
--Illegal to hire children under the age of 9
--Children 9-12 couldn't work more than 8 hours a day
--Those 13-17 couldn't work more than 12 hours a day
Which act was passed in 1842?
The Coal Mines Act
What did the Coal Mines Act do?
It prevented women and children from working underground
Which act was passed in 1847?
The Ten Hours Act
What did the Ten Hours Act do?
Limited women and children to work 10 hour days in factories
Define Laissez Faire.
"let do" let the people do what they please with as little interference from the government-Capitalism
Who wrote the Wealth of Nations?
What are the Three Natural Laws of Economics?
--Self interest: people work for own good
--Competition: forces people to make better products
--Supply and Demand: enough goods produced at cost to meet demand
Explain the Corn Laws.
Laid down large taxes that had to be paid on any foreign crops brought into Britain
Explain the efforts made by Prime Ministers Peel and Russell.
--Peel: sent over scientific commissioners to examine the facts, came back with news that 50% of crops were unusable
--Russell: understood they couldn't feed all their people so he emphasized employment rather than food for famine victims, stressed that the cost of Irish relief works should be paid for by Irish men and abolished Peel's Relief Commission
Why was food exported during the Irish Potato Famine?
Grain was a money crop not a food crop therefore it wasn't to be interfered with
What were workhouses? Were they helpful/ hurtful?
--Last resort for Irish families
--Comparable to modern homeless shelters
--Provided the greatest relief to the starving public even though families were split up in the process
Explain the British Census Commissioners claim about the outcome of the famine.
Claimed that the famine was a good thing and had helped the overpopulation problem
Factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in those businesses to make money
Called for government to promote greatest good for greatest number of people + people should judge ideas, institutions and actions on how useful they're or their utility
Who was John Stuart Mill?
The most famous utilitarian philosopher
What did John Mill call for?
The government to end differences in levels of wealth in Britain
Factors of production are owned by the public and operated for welfare and benefit of all
In socialism, what is the government's responsibility?
To take care of the citizens
In socialism, what would government ownership of industry prevent?
Inequality and end poverty
What was published in 1848?
The Communist Manifesto
What did the Communist Manifesto have to say relating to the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat?
--Insisted that the bourgeois society hadn't triumphed completely
--Predicted the proletariat would eventually overthrow bourgeois masters
What was the future according to Marx?
--After the proletariat took over the bourgeois, they would form a dictatorship to reorganize means of production
--Then a classless society would emerge and stat would wither away because it no longer represented interests of particular class
What were the ideas of the Communist Manifesto?
--History of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles
--Government of state reflected and defended the interests of the industrial middle class and its allies
The belief that peoples greatest loyalty should not be to a king, but to a nation of people who share a common history and culture + Deep devotion to ones nation
What four things helped lead to nationalism?
--Competition for materials and markets
The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war
Define and give an example for unification.
--Have people in politically divided but culturally similar areas merge
--Ex: Unification of German, and Unification of Italy
Define and give an example for separation.
--Culturally distinct group attempt to separate themselves or distance themselves from larger states
--Ex: Greece winning independence from Ottoman Empire
Define and give an example for state-building.
--Culturally distinct groups that break off from state and create their own unique culture
--Ex: US winning independence from Britain
Who was Cavour?
The prime minister of Italy
Who names Cavour prime minister?
King Emmanuel II
After becoming prime minister what policies does Cavour peruse?
Economic expansion, encouraging building of roads, canals, and railroads and fostering business enterprise by expanding credit and stimulating investment in new industries
Who allies with Piedmont to help drive Austrians out of Italy?
Did the Italians know about the peace made between Austria and France in 1859?
What was a major cause of the declining death rate?
Decline in deaths from famine, epidemic and war. More food
What magnified the already existing problem of rural poverty?
Of all the European countries, which had a declining population in the 19th century?
What is the traditional "safety valve" for overpopulation?
True or False: To keep children awake at the factory they were sometimes dipped upside-down in water and sent back to work.
Who became the constitutional king of France after Charles X left power?
What name was the king given? Based on his political support?
The bourgeois monarch
Which two groups emerged in the Chamber of Deputies based on the direction they thought the monarchy should go?
The Party of Movement and The Party of Resistance
Who became the first president of France under the Second Republic?
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon III's reconstruction of Paris served an aesthetic purpose as well as a __________ purpose.
What was the Zollverein and how did it strengthen Prussia?
--German customs union
--Eliminated tolls on rivers and roads among member states, stimulated trade and added to prosperity of member states
When King William I came to power what did he plan for the army?
Planned to double the size of the army and institute three years of compulsory military service for all young men
How did parliament react to William I's Plan?
How did William I respond to parliament's actions?
Appoints Bismarck as new prime minister= basically doubles the army anyway
Who are the Junkers?
Traditional, landowning aristocracy of Prussia
As a moderate, Bismarck only waged war when...
All other diplomatic alternatives had been exhausted and he was reasonably sure that all odds were in his favor
According to Bismarck, the great decisions of the day would not be decided by speeches and majorities but by what?
Blood and iron
In the Danish War, what did Austria gain and what did Prussia gain? How would Bismarck use this situation to help unify Germany?
--Austria gained Holstein
--Prussia gained Schleswig
--Joint administration of two duchies offered plenty of opportunities to create friction
How did/ will the Franco-Prussian War impact the relationship between Germany and France?
France was left with burning revenge
Who became the Kaiser of the Second German Empire?
The March Revolution removed _____ from power and established ____.
--Tzar Nicolas II
What is the term used for councils of workers' and soldiers' deputies?
What are the two factions of the Marxist Social Democratic Party?
Who is responsible for the Red Army becoming a well-disciplined and formidable force?
What policy was used to ensure regular supplies for the Red Army and nationalized banks and industry?
What is the name of the Red secret police that carried out the Red Terror?
What side of the Civil War did the US support?
What did Lenin establish to help Russia recover from industrial and agricultural collapse?
New Economic Policy
True of False: Under the New Economic Policy there is some private ownership
What is the new state created by Lenin and the Communists? Not the acronym, write it out!!
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
What created high unemployment in Italy after WWI?
Demobilization of troops
In 1912 Mussolini became editor of what? Name and what it is.
Avanti (Forward), the official socialist daily newspaper
What is the name of the bands of armed Fascists that used unrestrained violence against those who were not fascist?
Mussolini entered a political alliance with who in order to crush socialism?
Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti
what made Fascists attractive to the middle class?
Fear of socialism, communist revolution, and disorder
True of False: Fascists were forced to March on Rome in order to make Mussolini Prime Minister of Italy.
False (bluff worked, named Prime Minister before the march)
What law stipulated that any party winning at least 25% of the votes would automatically be allotted 2/3 of the seats in parliament?
True or False: The elections of 1924 were conducted in an atmosphere of Fascist intimidation.
What did Mussolini's regime rely on to indoctrinate the young people?
Young Fascists/ youth organizations but NOT secondary schools which maintained considerable freedom
Lenin and the Bolsheviks publicly revealed the contents of secret wartime treaties that gave them what reason for the European nations going to war?
To achieve territorial gains
What determined Frances' approach to peace?
Who was not invited to attend the peace talks in Paris?
Why wasn't Russia at the peace talks?
What did France accept instead of a separate Rhineland to defend its border?
A defensive alliance with Britain and the US
What is Nazi short for?
National Socialist German Workers Party
Why was Hitler sent to prison in late 1923?
Beer Hall Putsch-attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic in an armed uprising (mimicking Mussolini's March on Rome)
Who appointed Hitler as chancellor?
What act made it so that Hitler no longer needed either the Reichstag or President Hindenburg in order to make decisions
What is Gleichschaltung?
Coordination of all institutions under Nazi control
True of False: Hitler became the ultimate decision maker by fostering rivalry
True or False: In Nazi Germany industry was nationalized
What is the SS
--Controlled all regular and secret police activity
The SS functioned on which two principles?
Terror and ideology
What was used to separate Jews from the Germans politically, socially and legally?
Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
Dedicated patriot who had supported Mazzini and the republicans cause of Young Italy
Who's daring tactics win the day in the capturing of Two Sicilies?
Who stops Garibaldi from marching on Rome? Why? How does Garibaldi respond?
--Thought it would bring war with France
--Garibaldi yields to Cavour because he doesn't want to start a Civil War
Which army indirectly completed the task of Italian unification?
What city becomes the new capital of the united Italian state?
Which countries did German nationalists think were powerful enough to dominate German affairs?
Austria and Prussia
Who replaces King Fredrick William IV?
King William I
What class was Bismarck born into?
What is Realpolitik?
Politics of reality--Politics based on practical concerns rather than theory or ethics
What was the turning point in Prussian domestic affairs?
What were the two biggest forces in 19th century?
Liberalism and nationalism
How did the Franco-Prussian War start?
Bismarck edited the discussion between French ambassador Erns and King William I to make it sound like the Prussian King had treated the ambassador in a demeaning fashion
Why is the Franco-Prussian War significant?
Final stage in German Unification
What was the March Revolution?
Series of strikes in Petrograd when working class women protested bread prices
What did the troops do when Nicholas told them to stop the disorders?
They joined the demonstrations
What provisional government was put in March 15?
What did Duma work towards?
Parliamentary democracy by passing reforms for universal suffrage, civil equality and shorter work days
What section of the Marxist Socialist Democratic Party did Lenin control?
What did Lenin present in his April Theses?
Blueprint for revolution based on his own version of Marxist theory
During the night of November 6, pro-Soviet and pro-Bolshevik forces took control of Petrograd under the slogan _________.
"All power to the Soviets"
True or False: The Provisional government in Russia collapsed with little bloodshed.
Lenin realized the importance of winning mass support quickly by doing what?
Fulfilling Bolshevik promises
What treaty withdrew Russia from WWI?
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
What does Stalin mean?
Man of Steel
What was Stalin's foreign policy view? Trotsky's?
Stalin: revolution can survive in Russia with out European and West help
Trotsky: revolution must be spread to rest of Europe to survive
What were the terms of the New Economic Policy?
--Modified version of old capitalist system
--Peasants not allowed to sell produce openly, retail stores and small industries employed fewer than 20 employees could now operate under private ownership, heavy industry, banking, mines remained in hands of government
What does the USSR stand for?
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
What saves the Soviet Union from complete economic disaster?
New Economic Policy
What was the goal of the Five Year Plan?
Transform the Soviet Union from an agricultural country to an industrial state virtually overnight
What is collectivization?
The practice of rounding up people of the same profession and forcing them to work together and share their goods/profits
What were the two sides fighting in the Russian Revolution?
Reds and Whites
Who won the Russian Revolution?
Which side of the Revolution did the US support?
What was the name of the government that ruled Germany after WWI?
The Kellogg-Brand Pact intended to do what?
What was the leading newspaper of the Soviet Union?
What did propaganda in the Soviet Union stress?
Need for sacrifice to create a new socialist state
Who were Lenin's secret police?
What is Stalin's solution to opposition?
The Great Purge
Fascism emphasizes what?
Loyalty to state and obedience to its leader
True or False: Fascism has a defined economic theory or program.
Fascism is an extreme from of what?
To fascists what is a sign of weakness?
Peacefulness (believed nations must struggle)
How is fascism similar to communism?
--Both allowed only one political party to exist
--Both denied individuals rights
--Neither had democracy AT ALL
How does fascism differ from communism?
--Fascism didn't want a classless society
--Fascists are NATIONALISTS while communists are INTER-NATIONALISTS (aimed at uniting workers worldwide)
Who did Benito Mussolini believe himself to be the modern day version of?
What were the politics of Mussolini's dad? How, in turn did Benito Mussolini get his name? Why is all this ironic given Mussolini's later politics?
--Named after socialist
--Would become ANTI-socialist
Name three things during Mussolini's childhood/ early adulthood that foreshadowed his later years as a Fascist dictator.
--Violent child--stabbed someone
--10 years old when head of school lunch rebellion
--Escaped military duties which he would later punish soldiers for
--Didn't start talking until later in life
What did Mussolini learn from journalism?
You can make people believe almost anything, but they also forget it so you can contradict yourself
How did Mussolini use the media to control the masses when he was rising to power?
Got people to believe what he wrote
What was Mussolini's view on WWI?
First opposed to entering war then wants to enter war
What was the atmosphere in Italy after WWI?
--On the brink of civil war + a lot of unemployment
--Thought communists would come to power
What does Il Duce mean?
What does Mussolini's style tell us about this personality?
Way to cope with insecurity--trying to be something he's not
What did Mussolini do with the king and Parliament after he came to power?
Threatened them one month after in power
Why did he prefer to work with scoundrels?
Because he could black mail them
What did Mussolini do to all the political parties in Italy?
Abolished all other political parties--they were illegal
What did Mussolini do to win the approval of the Catholic Church?
Increased state allowances to popes and bishops and had religious marriage
How did Mussolini bring Italy into the 20th Century?
Swamps made into house + trains run on time + imposed social things in Italy
How did Mussolini use propaganda?
He wrestled wild animals and worked amoug peasants--in order to get support
What was the "hallmark" of Il Duce's regime? How did he control the presses while in power?
--He marked what was right and wrong in newspapers and then sent them to the editors to be edited
What did Hitler ask Mussolini fro as a young man? How did Il Duce respond? How did Mussolini feel about Hitler?
--Would become good friends, however Mussolini never really like Hitler + was like his protector (in the beginning at least)
What ages did Mussolini order mandatory military instruction for all Italians?
8-32 years old
What African country did Mussolini invade in an attempt to bring Italy glory and increase its empire? Describe some of the brutalities committed.About how many Ethiopians died? What did it do to Italy finacially?
--Reduced population by slaughter, poisonous gas, massacre
--Lost 1/2 million Ethiopians
--Cost Italy dearly= ruined them
Describe the relationship between Hitler and Mussolini by 1937.
Hitler adopted superiority to Mussolini= Mussolini fears Germany
How did Hitler's antisemitism influence Mussolini? Was this the tradition in Italy?
--He made antisemitism policy in Italy
--Not tradition but said it was
How did Italians feel about WWII?
Didn't want WWII
What did Mussolini sign with Hitler in mid-1939?
Pact of Steel
What was the greatest military mistake made by Mussolini?
Trusted Hitler not to begin WWII until Italy was ready
Describe Mussolini's military career.
--Didn't want advice even though needed it
--Attack on France= over stated
--Losing to Britain but refusing German help--then Germans come to help and defeat Britain in 2 weeks
--Cowered at front line
How does Mussolini lose power? How does he spend his 60th birthday? Who rescues him?
--Fascist grand council voted him out of power
--Political prisoner in own country
--Hitler rescues him and makes him leader of North Italy, but is really a puppet
Stalin death vs. Mussolini death?
Mussolini= not respected: bodies hanging in public then dragged through streets and spit on--over decade later Mussolini would have proper funeral
Stalin= respected + loved
List the four long term causes of WWI.
Which countries were apart of the Triple Alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Which countries were apart of the Triple Entente?
Britain, France, Russia
Serbia is mad at Austria because they dashed their hopes of a what?
Who sides with Serbia?
What is Pan-Slavism?
A movement of the Mid 19th century, in which the goal was the unity of the Slavic People
Who was Franz Ferdinand?
The Arch Duke of Austria
Who assassinated Ferdinand? What group was he apart of?
--The Black Hand
Where was Ferdinand assassinated?
What country blamed Serbia for the murder?
Who is Wilhelm II?
Kaiser of Germany replaced Bismarck
List the turn of events after Austria declares war on Serbia.
--Russia takes army to Austria-Hungary
--Germany asks Russia to stop or they will declare war
--Russia ignores Germany
--Germany declares war on Russia
--Germany declares war on France
What is a blank-check?
Assurance that a country will back another country up no matter what
How did Germany respond to Austria's ask for support?
What three points were in Austria's ultimatum to Serbia?
1. Serbia ends all anti-Austrian activities
2. Dismiss all officials hostile to Austria-Hungary
3. Austria-Hungary sends officials to Serbia to investigate assassination
Serbia accepts all but the ______ term.
When did Austria declare war on Serbia?
July 28, 1914
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Germany would quickly crush France in the west before Russia is fully ready
Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail?
--More resistance than expected in Belgium= German advances delayed
--Russia mobilized faster than expected
--Britain met German forces in North France
--France attacked in south
Germany invaded France through what country?
Why did Britain enter the war?
Because Germany invaded Belgium, which Britain had pledged to defend its neutrality
Who sent an ultimatum on July 23, 1914? Who received an ultimatum on July 23, 1914?
Austria-Hungary sends it to Serbia
Which countries were apart of the Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Which countries were apart of the Allied Powers?
Great Britain, France, United States, Russia, Japan, Italy, Serbia
Which countries fought on the Western Front?
France, Great Britain, Belgium vs. Germany, Austria-Hungary (eventually the allies were joined by US and Italy)
Where was the Western Front?
Belgium and northeastern France
Summarize the first Battle of the Marne.
--Germans move into Belgium
--Reach Marne River (20 miles from Paris)
--Underestimate how fast Britain can mobilize
--Germans stopped by British-French counterattack and fall back
--French army is too exhausted to pursue
Why is the first battle of the Marne significant?
--Was the only mobile battle on the Western Front
--Ended hopes for quick German victory
--Ruined Schleiffen Plan
--Led to trench warfare
Define no-mans land.
Land between the trenches of the two sides
True or False: As a soldier not all your time would be spent on the front line due to rotation.
True or False: New technology delivered fast-moving war as expected.
False! It just killed people more efficiently
Poison gas was introduced by the ________ and used by _______ sides.
Poisonous gas led to what?
Blindness, severe blisters, death by choking
What was the problem with poisonous gas?
Couldn't control where it went, so with a little wind it could blow into both camps
What new technology made it hard for forces to advance?
Airplanes were introduced by the ________, and were used to spot the enemy's _________ and attack ________ centers.
Tanks were introduced at what battle and by who?
--Battle of the Somme
Submarines were introduced by who?
Who fought on the Eastern Front?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria vs. Russia
What is the significance of the Battle of Tannenberg?
Russia was never on the offensive again
Similarities between the Eastern and Western Fronts?
--Lots of casualties
Differences between the Eastern and Western Fronts?
Eastern Front: mobile (because Russia is so cold that ground is too hard to dig into for trenches)
Western Front: In trenches
Who was involved in Gallipoli?
Britain, ANZAC, France, Ottoman Empire
What does ANZAC stand for?
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
What was Gallipoli?
The Allied plan to attack a region in the Ottoman Empire known as the Dardanelles
Why open a new front in Gallipoli?
--Take Constantinople (very decadent city)
--Defeat the Turks
**Open supply line to Russia
Why does Gallipoli fail?
--Unfamiliar with terrain
--Flaws in communication
--Faults in command
--Some boats landed in the wrong spot
What is unrestricted submarine warfare?
German submarines sink ships with out warning! O.o -Oh no!!!
________ had a stronger submarine force than ________.
The _____ blockade of _______ was intended to cut off _________'s supplies.
How does Germany respond to the blockade?
They declare all waters around the UK a war zone (any ship will be sunk by German submarines)
The blockade effected which country more?
What two steps led to the US entering WWI?
The Lusitania was a _________ ship carrying _________ passengers.
What was in the paper next to the ad for the Lusitania?
A warning from the Imperial German Embassy that any ship flying the British flag will be sunk
What went wrong on the Lusitania's trip to Britain?
--Ship was delayed
True or False: The Lusitania was NOT carrying ammunition.
How does the US respond?
President Wilson sends a strongly worded letter
The Zimmerman Telegram was sent to the German Minister of _________.
Who intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram?
What was stated in the Zimmerman Telegram?
--Germany would help Mexico re-conquer the land it had lost to the US if Mexico allied with Germany
--England will be defeated in a few months
--Germany wants the US to stay neutral but IF the US does enter the war Mexico will help them attack
What happens after the Zimmerman Telegram?
US declares war on Germany
Define total warfare.
Government devotes everything to the war effort: controlled what factories produced and how much, facilities converted to munitions factories, nearly every able-bodied citizen was put to work
People could buy only small amounts of items that were also needed for the war effort
One-sided information designed to persuade in order to keep up morale and support the war
Define the role of women in WWI.
--Women became apart of the war effort
--They worked in factories, as nurses, paved streets, plowed fields etc.
Most women _____ the workforce after the war ended. However peoples view of women's capabilities were ________ forever.
Why is Russia struggling?
--In need of supplies and losing on Eastern Front to Germany
--Morale was low so many soldiers left the front
When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed?
At the end of WWI, an _______ was signed between the allies and Germany.
Who were the "Big Four" at the Treaty of Versailles?
Britain, US, France, Italy (however it was really the Big Three because Britain, US and France made most of the major decisions)
What part of the Treaty of Versailles were the Germans particularly unhappy with?
War Guilt Clause
What did the War Guilt Clause say?
Declared Germany (and Austria) responsible for starting war and ordered Germany to pay reparations for all the damage to which the Allied governments and their people
What were some military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
--Germany had to reduce army, cut back navy and eliminate air force
--Cession of Alsace and Lorraine to France and sections of Prussia to new Polish state
--Rhineland established between Germany and France
What was the Rhineland?
A demilitarized zone.
What was created at the Treaty of Versailles?
League of Nations
Summarize the second battle of the Marne.
--German forces succeed in advancing 40 miles to Marne River
--Allied counter attack led by French general and supported by American troops defeated the Germans
Which document established that the US would send $200 million to Germany as a loan to help the economy recover?
The Dawes Plan
Which European leaders sent troops, money and planes to help Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War?
Hitler and Mussolini
What type of government did Spain have until 1931?
Britain and France practice this by giving into an aggressor (Hitler) to keep the peace.
The mountainous northwestern border area of Czechoslovakia
Hitler demands _______ of Sudetenland to Germany and expressed his willingness to risk ___________.
The union between Austria and Germany
True or False: The Weimar Republic was plagued with problems.
Why was the Weimar Republic plagued with problems?
--No democratic tradition in Germany
--Country was broke + socially unstable
--No outstanding political leaders
What does Germany do to solve debt problem? What did this lead to?
--Simply printed more money
What treaty was signed in 1925?
Treaty of Locarno
What did the Treaty of Locarno say?
--France and Germany would never go to war
--Germany would respect existing borders of France and Belgium
--Germany joins the League of Nations 1928
When was the Kellogg-Brand Pact signed?
True or False: The Great Depression only affected the US.
Which country was the first to collapse in Europe? (think Great Depression)
How did the Great Depression impact Germany?
--Paved the way for social discontent and extremist parties
--Economic problems pushed the middle class to the rightist parties that were hostile to the republic
What is russification?
Forcing of Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the empire.
What was the issue in the Crimean War?
Right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine. France has it, but Russia wants it.
Who wins the Crimean War? Who loses?
What was the Treaty of Paris?
-Russia gives up land
-Moldovia and Wallachia under protection of all five powers.
What was the Cold War? What type of war was it?
Fight between US and USSR over dominating international affairs. Proxy war
What was the Iron Curtain?
Formed between Eastern and Western Europe to prevent people from crossing to west. NOT A REAL BORDER.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
Truman's policy to contain spreading of communism.
What was the Marshall Plan?
US Plan that gave 13 billion in aid to Western Europe to redevelop and avoid succumbing to economic and social ills. Made people want to ally with America.
What was the containment policy?
Policy to stop Soviet expansion
What is the sphere of influence?
An area where another country claims special political or economic influence.
What was the Arms Race?
Battle between US and USSR to have the better weapon.
What was NATO?
Alliance of Western European nations in politics and military.
What was the name of the government in West Germany?
Federal Republic of Germany
What was the name of the government in Eastern Germany?
German Democratic Republic
Why did the US do the Berlin Airlift?
Brought in food so Eastern people would support America. Eventually works as Russia ends blockade.
What are Gorbachev's two big policies?
Glasnost and Perestroika
Which of Gorbachev's policies relaxed censorship, gave freedom of speech,and included more people in the political process?
Did Gorbachev's policies work?
NO NO NO NO NO
What is perestroika?
Restructuring that allowed some social freedom, effort to make socialism more efficient and steps toward a free market economy.
What is the order of the four revolutions?
Hungarian Revolution, Prague Spring, Polish Solidarity, and Velvet Revolution.
The Unification of Italy and Germany was made possible by what war?
What was the last German Offensive Battle?
Battle of the Bulge (Ardennes Offensive)
Why did Hitler want to conquer Norway?
To attack Britain
September 3, 1939
France and Britain declare war on Germany
May 8, 1945
non-agression pact-Germany and Russia
Soviet and German Sphere of Infulence
UK Prime Minister
UK Prime Minister
no peace talks
Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill
Post War Situation
Permanent Peace Plan
Truman, Stalin and Atlee
Germany-> 4 sections
Poland gets land
sets the stage for cold war
roosevelt wanted the us to stay neutral byt sympathized with the allies
Cash and Carry
allowed trade if paid in cash, arranged transport and assumed all risk
allowed to give military supplies
sent to UK and USSR
Tripartite Pact between Germany, Italy and Japan
Us ended trade with Japan
moved Fleet from West to P.H to show military readiness
Japan bombed-> Us in War
Hiroshima and Nagaski
dropping atomic bombs on Japan
victory over japan day
Who: Germany vs. Uk, France and Poland
Sig: Preceded WWII. Set up W front
Who: USSR vs. Finland
Sig: showed ineffectiveness of Red army and importance of League of Nations
Encouraged Hitler to invade Russia
-Ussr scared of German expansion
Who: Germany vs Denmark and Norway
Germany eliminated France
Battle of the Atlantic
Who: UK vs. Germany
Would have prevented D-Day if axis won
Battle of Britain and Operation Sea Lion
UK vs German (Air Force)
Yugoslavia vs. Germany
delayed invasion of Russia
Who: Germany vs Greece
Operation Barbarossa/Siege of Leningrad/Battle of Stalingrad
Russia vs. Germany
Marked Decline of Nazi
Axis wanted to deprive Allies of Middle Eastern Oil
Mussolini invades Ethipoia
British set up another front
Invasion of North Africa
Allies invade Italy
Germany lost Italy
Allies vs. Germany
Turning point in war
Operation Market Garden
Uk, US and Poland vs. Germany
Destroy Germany's industry and economy to remove Germany from the war
Battle of the Bulge
Uk, France, US Canada vs. Germany
Firebombing of Dresden
USSR vs. Germany
Fall of Berlin
US and USSR vs. Germany
End of War/Fighting