President from 1939-1923. Asked americans to plant victory gardens. Passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. Believed Government should avoid direct involvement, and leave the relief effort to businesses and charities. Very unpopular with the public. From industrial wealth background.
Critic of Roosevelt's New Deal. Senator who setup the "Share Our Wealth Society" proposed heavy taxes on the rich.
Alfred. E. Smith
Democratic Opponent to Herbert Hoover. Was the opposite of Hoover, outgoing and Catholic.
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who revolutionary economic theory that limited deficit spending, could benefit and economy provided a basis of F.D.R
John Nance Garner
VP of FDR: "equal to a warm bucket of spit"
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Thirty second president elected 4 times. He led the US during the great depression and World War II.
Wife of FDR, social reformer, writer, diplomat, supported equal rights for women and black people. she served as the first US ambassador to the UN
Totalitarian Dictator. led aggresive invasion of Europe. believed in supremacy of Aryan race and mass murder of millions of jews
prime minister of England during WWII. opposed policy of appeasement and led GB through WWII
Emperor of Japan during WW11
Japanese Nationalist and general. took control of japan during WWII. was later tried and executed for war crimes
leader of Soviet Union during WWII,
Italian Facist leader. he ruled as italys dictator for more than 20 years. beginning of 1922. and made italy a totalitarian nation. had an alliance with hitler. brought italy into WWII
Part of the Nazi Militia, executed by Hitler b/c thought as rival
Harry S. Truman
33rd prez. due to death of FDR. led us through the end of ww2.
Gen. Curtis LeMay
George Wallace's running mate in 1968; was a general in the United States Air Force
Sen. Joseph McCarthy
McCarthyism -> provided the media with sensational news, claiming he knew the names of Communists in our government. This scared and lost the trust in the gov for many Americans.
governor of Alabama that ran for president 4 times, nicknamed "the most influential loser"
Hubert H. Humphrey
1968, ran against Nixon
first chinese communist leader; defeated Chang Hai Cheik
Cuba's dictator; was to be thrown out of power in the Cuban missile crisis
VP for Clinton;Ran against Bush in 2000. His election was the only time in history that the Supreme Court has determined the outcome of a presidential elecntion because he won the popular vote in Forida but lost the electoral college votes.
Eugene Bull Connor
He denied civil rights to blacks; he directed people to use fire hoses and attack dogs on blacks
wanted segregation in Little Rock High School
Protested against sitting in the back of the bus
black baseball player; revolutionized sports for blacks
first justice of the supreme court; appointed by JFK
Martin Luther King, Jr.
lead protests; gave "I have a dream" speech
part of the Nation of Islam; did not believe in peaceful protests during the Civil Rights Movement; differed from MLK's ways to overcome racism
Wrote a book called "Feminine Mystic"- about feminism
Civil Rights activist that protested against farm workers treatment.
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who paired up with France during the Vietnam conflict. America was fighting North Vietnam because Ho Chi Minh, a nationalist, was sympathetic to communist views.
John F. Kennedy
Elected President in 1960 after beating Nixon. Democrat. Known for such programs like the Peace Corps, the New Frontier, and the SALT I treaty. Marred by the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, and being treated as a child by Russian leaders. Assassinated November 22, 1963.
Brother of JFK, also a democrat. Ran for president in 1968, but after receiving democratic nomination, was assassinated on June 6th, 1968. Represented a new era for America.
US Secretary of Defense under JFK
Known as "Father of the Cold War"
Lyndon B. Johnson
Vice President of JFK, served as President after JFK's assassination. Known for the Great Society program, VISTA, and for passing much legislation that was JFK's plans. Lied, and was marred by Gulf of Tonkin, and the Pentagon Papers.
Lost presidential race to JFK. Was the President after LBJ. Known for his outstanding foreign policy and as the first president to reach out to a communist nation.Was marred by how he recorded all white house meetings, and the watergate scandal.
Vice President under Nixon, became acting President after Nixon's resignation.
Leader of Iraq, which invaded Israel. America supported Israel, so oil sanctions were made against them.
Russian leader who practiced Pleikova, or political openness. Tore down the Berlin wall.
Victim of police brutality in LA, which escalated racial tensions there.
President after Ford, helped with the SALT II treaty, and was president during the Iraq hostage crisis, and during the boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
Remembered for loading lots of money into the defense budget, and Reaganomics, which was how money given to businesses would trickle down to the people.
The day on which the stock market crashed, launching America into the Great Depression.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression occurred after the booming 1920 came to an end when the stock market crashed. This crash revealed the serious flaws in the american economy which helped transform a stock market crisis into the Great Depression. Banks failed, therefore losing all of the americans savings, and farms failed as well. The unemployment rate was high and thus, hoovervilles and hoboes emerged.
This was also called the Bonus March and greatly damaged president Hoover's reputation. during the depression, around 4300 marchers, mostly WW1 veterans headed to Washington D.C to demand immediate cash payment of their service certificate. however Hoover Refused the early payment and ordered General William D Mitchell to clear the protesters from the government poverty. though Hoover just told him to remove them, Mitchell cruelly chased them away violently even with the use of tanks.
This Act was passed in 1930 and this raised the cost of imported good for Americans consumers, making it more likely that they would purchase the cheaper american goods. however this act did not work for the tariff rate were set very high , therefore dramatically decreasing american trade with other nations.
This act was also known as the National Labor Relations Act and through this act, it outlawed a number of anti labor practices, such as the creation of company sponsored unions. this act also established a new National Labor Relations Board which had powerful authority to conduct voting in workplaces whether employees wanted union representation.
New Deal Programs
during the Hundred Days of FDR, he pushed congress to make many significant changes in america, which was called the New Deal. the new deal focused on accomplishing three goals which were Relief (for those suffering the effects of the Great Depression). Recovery( of the depressed economy), and reform(that would help prevent serious economic crisis in the future).
FDR's Court Packing Plan
Because FDR was not satisfied that the courts had struck down many New Deal programs, FDR plans to give the president power to appoint many new judges and expand the Supreme Court to six justices. however many people saw this as Fdrs effort to put the judges in his favor and many people began to desert him which was a great disappointment to this presidency
part of the Cuban constitution that the americans had set and limited cuba's right to make treaties, gave america the right to intervene in cuban affairs, and require cuba to sell or lease land to the Americans.
this was the union with germany that hitler tried to force upon many neighboring nations. This was looked as a violation from the germans of the treaty of versailles
This was the attack of the anti jewish riots across Germany in 1938 november 9 and 10. also called the "night of broken glass, the Natzis violently attacked many jews and sent them to concentration camps.
Battle of Britain
When Britain stood alone against the Germans, the Germans attacked great britain's capital city london and its British Royal Air Force but the british spirit was too strong for the germans to take over britain.
World War II
This war lasted from 1938 to 1945 and was a huge conflict between the allied nations, america, great britain, and the soviet Union and, the axis nations which were the italians, germans, and the japanese.
this operation was planned by the americans and the british, and its main goal was the end the war as quickly as possible through a large invasion of mainland europe
On December 7th, 1941 the japanese launched a surprise attack on the americans. unprepared for the attack, Pearl Harbor took a heavy toll of the american warships anchored in the harbor. this was a great loss for the americans and led america into WW2
Creation of the WACS
during America's involvement in the WW2 Women's Army corps was the largest women's unit in america. 15,000 women stepped up to serve to repair equipment, work as electricians, and perform many other jobs.
During tense relations with the japanese during WW2 many of the japanese citizens in america were sent to japanese internment camps to keep them from selling out secrets to the japanese
Remilitarizing the Rhineland
Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was required to keep its troops out of the Rhine River, which was along the French border. However, Hitler sent troops to Rhineland in 1936. No other country wanted to take any military action against Germany, so the German troops remained in Rhineland and Hitler grew stronger.
Battle of Midway
The Japanese decided to lure the Americans in a large sea battle by attacking the Midway Island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. American naval officers broke a Japanese code and learned about the plans for attacking Midway beforehand. The Americans benefitted from the flaws of the Japanese war planners. When Japan attacked the island, the American air defenses were prepared to fight off the air raid. It was an American victory, while Japan suffered a terrible loss.
an agreement between Germany, Italy, France and Great Britain that was signed on September 29, 1938. It allowed Nazi Germany to annex only Sudetenland, not any other European territory.
Continuing state of conflict, tension and competition that existed primarily between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from 1947 to 1991.
Period marked by a greatly increased birth rate. (After World War II)
Korean War officially began after North Korea invaded South Korea by crossing the boundaries of the two regions at the 38th parallel, where Soviet Union supported North Korea and the U.S. supported North Korea. A cease fire was established and the outcome was that Korea remained divided along the same line.
The era when Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. government.
Battle during the Korean War between United Nations (UN) and North Korean (NK) forces lasting from August 4 to September 18, 1950.
Brown vs. Board of Education decision
Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote an opinion that reversed the Plessey vs. Ferguson's "separate but equal" doctrine for public schools. He wrote that schools that were segregated by race were unconstitutional.
In October 1957, Soviet Union launched the first-ever artificial satellite named Sputnik.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
The Bay of Pigs invasion took place on April 17, 1961. It was an attempt by the US government to overthrow Fidel Castro's government in Cuba. The CIA began training Cuban exiles to invade Cuba. They hoped that the Cuban people would rise up and join them in overthrowing Fidel Castro. However, it was a failure and embarrassment to President Kennedy.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviet Union was concerned about the nuclear missiles the U.S. had placed in Turkey and also the Americans call for an invasion of Cuba after the Bay of Pigs invasion. Soviet leader Khrushchev kept pumping aid into Cuba. The U.S. found out that Soviet Union placed offensive missiles in Cuba. The U.S. decided with a naval blockade to make the Soviets remove the missiles in Cuba. After Khrushchev removed the missiles from Cuba, Kennedy promised to never invade Cuba.
Between North Vietnam and South Vietnam that lasted from 1946-1975. North Vietnam was supported by Soviet Union and South Vietnam was supported by the U.S.
The Tet Offensive was the series of surprise attacks on the American embassy in major cities, towns, and military bases all throughout South Vietnam. These were launched by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops.
Yom Kippur War
Arab-Israeli War from October 6 to October 25, 1973. The War began when Arab states launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, a holy day in Judaism.
Space Program/Moon Landing
apollo 11 , 1969 . NASA formed 1958. due to war tensions between U.S. and Soviet with launch of sputnik . buzz aldrin and neil armstrong. significance: mission fufilled a bold promise made by president kennedy at the start of the sixties to place man on the moon in that decade . triumph for american technology and source of wonder and pride to all
organization of petrolleum exporting countries . O.P.E.C protested U.S. support of Israel by boycotting all import of oil into the U.S. This negatively impacted the public opinion on Nixon's presidency. Lasted for more than 1 year.
Panama Canal Treaty
1977 President Carter negotiated with Panama's leader to give control of Panama Canal to Panama by 1999.
Deconcini, a democratic senator from Arizona provided a treaty (Deconcini reservaton) that which allows the United States "to take such steps as each [the U.S. or Panama] deems necessary, in accordance with its constitutional processes, including the use of military force in the Republic of Panama, to reopen the Canal or restore the operations of the Canal, as the case may be."
Camp David accords
The peace accords forged in 1978 by Israel and Egypt at the U.S. presididential retreat in Camp David, officially signed in 1979 by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyption President Anwar al-Sadat with Jimmy Carter as a witness. The pact states that Israel would return Sinai to Egypt.
Part of the education Amendments of 1972, this protects people from gender discrimination in public facilities such as education programs, and ones that activities supported by the government. It helped stop discrimination in athletics and sexual discrimination.
SALT I Treaty
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks 1 talks about the Soviet Union and America's arms status. The first one froze the number of strategic missile launchers at existing levels and added a submarine missile only after the same number had been dismantled. ***This treaty did not limit warheads.
SALT II Treaty
The second part of the treaty meant to stop manufacture of nuclear missiles. It was the first treaty to actually reduce the number of arms on each side.
(Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) - bilateral treaty between US and Soviet Union on reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms. it was signed on july 31, 1991and limited the two countries to 6000 nuclear warheads
First Gulf War
It was triggered by Iraqs invasion (led by Saddam Hussain) on Kuwait with the aim of acquiring the country's oil reserves, cancelling the debt that Iraq owed Kuwait and expanding Iraqi power in the area. The Security Council called for them to withdraw from Kuwait on August 3 and on August 6, the council imposed a worldwide ban on trade with Iraq.
A secret arrangement in the 80s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran, and was the product of initiatives set by Ronald Raegan to aid contras who were conducting guerilla warfare against Nicaraguan government and also to placate moderates within the Iranian government to secure release of Americans held in hostage by Iran.
The start of the space race when the Soviets launched their space satellite called Sputnik into space. It began new technological and scientific advancements and marked the start of the space race between the US and the Soviets.
When people invested in goods without properly researching the value or state of the investment, so people often were stuck in a bad investment. (Similar to gambling).
Welfare capitalism is an economic system with free enterprise where businesses give more than just monetary payment to it's employees, perhaps providing health care, or housing
Buying materials using money borrowed from the government. (Like a loan)
Wages that have been adjusted for inflation.
Gross National Product (GNP)
The total value of all goods and services produced in the nation.
Makeshift shantytowns that sprung up during the Great Depression; named for President Hoover
People who summgled liquor during Prohibition
Someone who was believed to be above the law, higher than the others. Nixon believed in this.
The alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan in World War II
A German word meaning "lightning war"
(1935) Antisemitic laws were introduced to Nazi Germany. The classification of Jews were made and was the start of many laws regarding Jews. It was the legal part of the already in place Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.
A person who favors intervention especially by a government in its domestic economy by one country in the affairs of another.
People who believed in the policy in which a nation avoids entanglement in foreign wars.
A string of bunkers and fortresses that lined the border between France and Germany during World War II
Arsenal of Democracy
JFK believed America was this, the carrier of democracy.
The top-secret program to build an atomic bomb during World War II. Rose tensions with Russia because America and Britain did not include them. Spy cases based on scientists during the project.
A young person in the 1950s and early 1960s belonging to a subculture associated with the beat generation.
De Jure Segregation
Segregation by law
De Facto Segregation
Segregation that exists through custom and practice rather than by law.
President Eisenhower's idea that if Vietnam fell to communism, the other countries of Southeast Asia would fall to Communists.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949; "An attack on one is an attack on all" - result:peacetime military defense alliance
a country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation; a state that is controlled by another and often serves as a buffer during conflict
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization - was an alliance organized to oppose the growing communist influence in Southeast Asia. The United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, and Pakistan signed the treaty and accompanying Pacific Charter in Manila on September 8, 1954. The treaty became operative in February 1955 and bound the signatories to mutual aid to resist armed attack or subversion; an armed attack on one signatory was interpreted as a danger to all.
The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty - the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area
Where North and South Korea were split (Korean War) North of 38th parallel - Soviet Union, south of 38th parallel - U.S.
Where North and South Vietnam were split. North of 17th parallel - Ho Chi Minh; South of 17th parallel - U.S etc.
Nazi Germany's plan and execution of the systematic genocide of European Jews during World War II (result - Holocaust)
close advisors to Nixon to prevent leaks and information and security - National Security
National Organization of Women - 1966 - to end discrimination in the work place/schools/justice system; equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities with men, while living free from discrimination; founder - Betty Freidan
Winston Churchill said "An Iron Curtain has descended over Europe" - Symbol of Capital East vs Communist West; divided the two parts of Europe
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Leader - Moorefield Storey; purpose - to improve legal rights of African Americans, end racial violence, end school segregation, gain voting rights; methods - attacked racism through courts and legal cases; held marches and protests
Southern Christian Leadership Committee;Leader - Martin Luther King Jr. purpose - organized protest activities taking place all across the region, focal organization of the movement, fought violence with nonviolence; methods - protests, sit ins, speeches, marches (All nonviolent)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (Student Version of SCLC, formed by Sit-in leaders);Leader- Diane Nash; Purpose - to encourage the young people to play a greater role in the movement; methods - freedom rides, and more aggressive sit in demonstrations
Congress on Racial Equality; Leader - James Farmer; purpose - have non violent protests to have stronger effects on civil rights movement), methods - freedom riders, protests
a delay or suspension of an activity or a law
is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. Usually related to US and Soviet Union, The period was characterized by the signing of treaties such as the SALT I
was a political movement within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s, widely associated with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
Terrorist group headed by Osama bin Laden
Taken by Nazis pre-WWII
The treaty of Versailles called for the Rhineland to be a DMZ. Before WWII, Hitler re-militarized the Rhineland, which was a direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Unfortunately, the Allies didn't do anything about it.
City named after Stalin himself. Hitler attempted to take it, but the Russians held on to it and trapped many German soldiers in Stalingrad. Turning point of WWII in Europe. Hitler underestimated vastness of Russia, just like Napoleon Bonaparte (who was defeated in Russia). The Germans took 9/10 of the city but the Russians fought back in huge numbers and instead of ordering and evacuation, Hitler ordered them to fight, and thus many were killed and captured.
Turning point in the WWII against Japan. It was a naval battle. The U.S. completely destroyed the Japanese
The allies had a launched a large scale attack on Normandy called Operation Overlord. This is also known as the D-day landings. The Germans were heavily fortified on the beaches. We had over 1 million troops prepared for the attack. After the Battle of Normandy, the allies had casualties of 120,000. The Axis had 113,000.
First Major battle that attacked one of Japan's home Islands. Iwo Jima was heavily fortified. The Japanese fought to the death and defended tenaciously. 7000 marines died in the battle, but Iwo Jima was taken by the U.S.
Okinawa was another home island of Japan. It was extremely close to mainland Japan. The battle lasted 82 days and the fight was harder than Iwo Jima. over 12000 marines were killed and 39,000 wounded. The Japanese had a tendency to fight harder the closer we got to mainland Japan.
One of the two Japanese city that was hit by a nuclear bomb.
One of the two Japanese city that was hit by a nuclear bomb.
After a successful attack by the North Koreans, the South Koreans were pushed back to the port city of Pusan.
Dien Bien Phu
Corrupt South Vietnam Leader appointed by the U.S. Later assassinated by the Viet-Kong.
The Suez Canal also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and theRed Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe and Asia without navigating around Africa
Bay of Pigs
failed U.S attack on CUba using Cuban rebels to attack the mainland. considered one of JFK's biggest blunders
Gulf of Tonkin
North Vietnamese torpedo motor boats attacked the USS Maddox here led to Senate passing Gulf of Tonkin Resolution = gave LBJ the power to do anything he wants (a blank check)
Cam Ranh Bay
US disembarked troops into Vietnam here
City in South Vietnam near the 17th parallel; first towns attacked during the Tet Offensive.
Capital of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese captured Saigon. Due the NV, this was the "liberation of Saigon". to the south, it was "the fall of Saigon". The CIA held big evacuations to evacuate the people. Carriers were full to the point where planes and helicopters were dumped into the water.
government of France that worked with the axis powers
country west of Vietnam that was involved in the war
also west of Vietnam and targetted during the VIetnam War
landlocked nation in south asia.
Iraq wanted to invade Kuwait because they believed it was rightfully theirs. The U.S. stopped this and won, but in return, Iraq lit many oil barrels on fire. (U.S. was allies with Kuwait due to oil) Kuwait was a very rich country because of the oil there and Saddam Hussein wanted to take it over
capital of Vietnam
Nicaraguan contras vs. the other regime; contras were bad people, but they were anti-communist, so U.S. supported them. The Boland Amendment was passed to disallow any money going to these contras. U.S. avoided this by selling arms to Iran, and using this money to fund the contras. Danielle Ortega is now dictator of this country to this day, he runs a Cleptocracy, in which the poor are conned and Ortega takes all the money. Today, he is worth $400 million dollars.