Science 7th Grade Final Review

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7th grade final review

Cells

Basic unit of structure and function of a living thing

Chloroplast

Contains the green pigment called chlorophyll, the food-making site for a plant, and helps trap the sun's energy.

Cell Membrane

Outer layer, boundary of all cells, protects and allows material in and out of the cell. It is also known as being selectively permeable.

Mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)

Nucleus

control center of the cell, contains DNA.

Cellular Respiration

Combining glucose and oxygen to release Carbon dioxide, H2O, ATP.

Formula for Cellular Respiration

C6 H12 O6 + O2--->H2O+ATP

Osmosis

Special type of diffusion by which water passes in and out of the cell(High-->Low)

Bionmial Nomenclature

Refers to an organism's Genus and Species.

Autotroph

Organism that can make its own food from simple substances

Heterotroph

an organism that cannot make its own food

Prokaryote

No Nucleus

Eukaryote

Has a Nucleus

Monerans

No Nucleus
Unicellular
Borth Autotroph or Heterotroph
Examples:Bacteria

Protists

Has Nucleus
Mostly Unicellular
Both Autotroph or Heterotroph
Examples:Algae, Ameba.

Fungi

Has Nucleus
Mostly Multicellular
Heterotroph
Examples:Mushrooms, Mold, Mildew

Plants

Has Nucleus
Multicellular
Autotroph
Examples:Grass, Moss, Trees

Animals

Has Nucleus
Multicellular
Heterotroph
Cow, Humans, Moose, Dog

7 steps of classification system

Kingdom--->Phylum--->Class--->Order--->Family--->Genus--->Species

Photosynthesis Formula

CO2 + H2O + sun light energy ----> glucose + O2

Anther

the part of the stamen that contains pollen

Parts of the Pistil

stigma, style, and ovary

Parts of the Stamen

anther and filament

Stamen

the male reproductive organ of a flower

Pistil

The female reproductive part of a flower

Seeds of a flower

Seeds become a fertilized eggs

Oxygen

The Gaseous waste a leaf excretes during photosynthesis

Cartilage

tough, flexible connective tissue that supports, gives shape and prevents rubbing to the body parts

Tendons

Connects muscle to bone

Ligaments

Connects bone to bone

Cardiac

The type of muscle the heart is made up of

Smooth Muscle

The type of muscle found in the digestive system

Examples of Joints

Ball in socket(located in shoulder and hips)
Hinge(Knee and Elbow)

Backbone

Also known as vertebrae

Kneecap

Also known as patella

Collarbone

Also known as clavicial

Skull

Also known as Cranium

Epigolottis

Keeps food out of the trachea

Mechanical Digestion

Physical Action of breaking down food into small pieces...happens in the mouth and stomach

Mouth

Chemical digestion of sugars, teeth mechanically digest. It uses saliva to break down food

Stomach

Mechanical and Chemical digestion. Uses acid to break down food

Small Intestines

Most Digestion takes place here. Chemical Digestion. Contains villi and absorbs nutrients.

Large Intestines

Water is absorbed and undigested food is stored

Liver

Produces bile and breaks down excess amino acids

Function of Valves

Makes sure blood doesn't backflow

Veins

Sends blood back to the heart

Arteries

Sends Blood away from the heart

Capillaries

Connects veins and arteries, thinnest vessel, materials exchange.

Type O Blood

Universal Donor

Type AB

Universal Receiver

platelets

forms bloodclots/prevents bloodloss

red blood cells

contains hemoglobin/carries oxygen or carbon dioxide easily

white blood cells

acts as a defensive system/releases antibodies

circulation of blood

right atruim--->valve--->right ventricle--->pumonary artery--->lungs--->pulmonary vein--->left atruim--->valve--->left ventricle--->valve---->aorta--->rest of the body--->vena cava--->right atruim

respiratory system

the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide and water

windpipe

trachea

throat

pharynx

voicebox

larynx

excretory system

process by which waste is removed

kidneys

filters blood and creates urine

urinary bladder

sac that stores urine

ureter

tube that conducts urine to the urinary bladder

urethra

tube through which urine passes out of the body

cerebrum

part of the brain that controls the senses, though, and conscious activities. Right side=Artistic. Left side=logic and math.

cerebellum

balance and posture

medulla

base of brainstem, controls involuntary body processes(blinking, heartbeat, breathing, ect.)

reflex

automatic reaction to a stimulus(involuntary)

thyroid

thyroxin, controls metabolic rate

thymus

Thymosin, controls immune system

pancreas

Insulin, glucagion...regulates sugar blood level in blood

adrenals

epinephrine(adrenaline)...fight or flight

fertilization

joining of the egg and the sperm nuclei

uterus

fetus develop here

male sex cells

called sperm and made in the testes

female sex cells

called eggs and made in the ovaries

zygote

fertilized egg

embryo

organism that is in the uterus before eight weeks

fetus

organism that is in the uterus after 8 weeks

fallopian tube/oviduct

where fertilization takes place

umbilical cord

provides the baby with nutrients ad oxygen while inside the mother.

heredity

passing of traits from parents to offspring

physical appearance

an organism's phenotype

genetic make up

organism's genotype

dominant trait

stronger trait-capital letter

recessive trait

the weaker trait/hidden-lower case

hybrid

mix of recessive and dominant traits

pure

either all recessive or dominant

Gregor Mendel

father of genetics

DNA full name

Deoxyrybo nucleic acid

Structure of DNA

double helix(made of nitrogen bases)

James Watson and Francis Crick

discovered DNA's double helix

mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information that causes a new trait to be inherited

thymine

pairs up with adenine

guanine

pairs up with cytosine

evolution

change in a species over time

Charles Darwin

the father of evolution

fossil

imprint or remains of plants or animals existed in the past.

natural selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
survival of the fittest

adaptations

traits that help an organism survive

vestigial organ

left over organs that no longer function

homologus structure

similar bone structure shown between different organisms

Population

group of the same type of organism living together.

community

living part of any ecosystem

biotic

living

abiotic

non-living

symbiosis

relationship in which an organism lives on or in another organism

mutualism

+,+

parasitism

+,-

commensalism

+,o

competition

organism stuggling against one another for limited resources

predation

one organism hunts, kills, and eats another

habitat

place in which an organism lives

niche

rold of an organism in its community or environment

producer

something that produces its own food

consumer

an organism that obtains energy by feeding directly or indirectly on producers

decomposer

An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

the sun

primary source for ALL living things

herbivores

eats plants

carnivores

eats meat

omnivores

eats both plants and meats

protons

charge:positive
location:nucleus
mass:1.0073

neutrons

charge:None
location:nucleus
mass:1.0087

electrons

charge:negative
location:outside nucleus
mass:0.0006

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

protons + neutrons

isotope

one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons

properties of metals

luster, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat,electricity

properties of non-metals

dull,brittle,poor conductor/good insulator, solid liquid or gas

periods

horizontal rows in the periodic table

groups/families

The vertical columns of the periodic table

alkali metals

Group 1, 1 electron in outer level, very reactive, soft, silver, shiny, low density; Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium

alkaline earth metals

metallic elements in group 2 of the periodic table which are harder than the alkali metals and are also less reactive

transition metals

Groups 3-12, 1-2 electrons in the outer energy level, less reactive than alsali-earth metals, shiny, good conductor of thermal energy and electrical current, high density

halogens

group 17; contains nonmetals; 7 electrons in its outermost energy level; very reactive; poor conductors of electric current; never in its uncombined form in nature; combine with most metals to form salts

noble gases

one of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table(helium, neon,argon, krypton, xenon, and radon); noble gases are unreactive

valence electrons

electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom

speed/velocity

rate of an object's motion.

acceleration

rate of change in velocity

momentum

mass of an object times its velocity, determines how difficult it is to stop the objects motion

sliding friction

friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another
MOST FRICTION

rolling friction

friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface

Fluid Friction

friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid..air resistance

inertia

the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

newton's 2nd law of motion

force=mass(acceleration)

every action

has an equal and opposite reaction

weight

measure of the force of attraction between objects due to gravity

law of universal gravitation

all matter pulls toward each other; dependent on mass and distance

work:

force acting over a distance to move an object

power

rate at which work is done or energy is used

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