science- ecosystems chapter 6 STUDYCARDS

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22 terms · science dimension 3- chapter 6- ECOSYSTEM - 6.1 ENERGY: PREREQUISITE FOR LIFE - 6.2 RECYCLING IN NATURE - 6.3 ENERGY CRISIS

WHAT DO ORGANISMS REQUIRE ENERGY FOR?

organisms require energy to perform all the processes necassary for life: growth, reproduction,respiration, repair of body tissues and digestion.

WHAT PROVIDES ENERGY?

the sun

FOOD CHAIN

- energy from the pant- producer
- primary or first order consumer
-secondary or secondary order consumer
-tertiary or third order consumer
-fourth order consumer
-fifth oder consumer

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

all energy is conserved within an ecosystem. this means that energy cannot be destoyed, nor can it be created in an ecosystem. all it can do is convert from one form into another.

WHAT CAN CREATE ENERGY?

the only thing that can create energy is nuclear reaction, and there are plenty of those happening in the sun. Energy conversions start there too: nuclear fusion converts nuclear energy into massive quantities of heat energy and light energy which then shine down to Earth.

HOW DO PLANTS USE THE SUNS LIGHT TO USE ITS POWER?

Plants use a process called photosynthesis. photosynthesis coverts light energy into chemical energy by rearranging molecules of carbon dioxide and water into molecules of glucose (type of sugar) which the plants use as both their food and enerygy store.

ORGANISMS

organisms that provide there own food are called producers or autotrophs, organisms that eat plants are referred to as consumers or heterotrphs.

THE FLOW OF ENERGY

Nuclear energy ( core of sun)
Light energy (from the sun)
Chemical energy (made by plants or producers)
chemical energy (eaten by animals or consumers)
cheamical energy (animals eaten by other animals)

how is energy used?

kenetic energy- moves around in serch of food or mate, defends its territory, builds a home or seeks shelter, or evades a predator
sounds- use sounds to communicate with eachother
chemical energy-kinetic energy- sound energy
heat energy-animas that maintain a constant body temperature are such to ne endothermic.animals that are ectothermic are not constant but depend on the temperature of their surrounding

what happens to any energy that is left over?

will be used to grow new cells. this energy is effectively 'stored' and passes onto the next level of the food chain when the animal is eaten.
chemical energy chemical energy
(stored in plant) - (stored in animal)

what happends to energy that is lost?

energy is lost from the food chain once it is converted into kinetic and heat energy. this is becuase it can no longer be eaten or passed on to the next organism in the chain.Becuase heating and movement are such big energy users, only a little (between 5 to 20%) is accually left for growth and to be passed on to the nect level of the food chain.

WHAT FORMS MATTER?

everything around you is made out of matter, and all matter is made up of atoms. Livng organisms are made primarily from a combination of just four types of atoms: carbon (C), oxygen (O), hudrogen (H) and nitrogen (N).

inorganic matter

organic matter- The waste and remains of plants and animals.
in organic matter- refers to non living source such as rocks, minerals, or sand.

biotic and abiotic

biotic- living
abiotic- non living

water

water H2O, contains only hydrogen and oxygen atoms and so it is classified as an inorganic compound.
-98% salt water - 1% ice -1% fresh water
- it is only becuase wateris recycled that life on our planet has been able to exist for millions of years.

the water cycle

the sun is the only source of energy.
the sun cause water to eveporate from:
-moist sil surfaces
-plants or animals
-lakes,rivers,oceans
-clothes on the line

respiration

a process that both animals ans plants carry out in order to burn their energy reserves which are in the form of sugar glucose:
glucose+oxygen =carbon dioxide+water+energy

decomposition

the breakdown of animal wastes, dead plants, and dead animals by the actionof decomposers such as bacteria, fungi and worms that are present in soil.

herbivores,carnivores,omnivores

herbivores- plant eaters, carnivores- meat eaters, omnivores- an organism that eats both plants and animals.

watertable

the upper point at which water can be found in the ground

where can organic compound

A compound that contains carbon

renewable and non-renewable energy

non-renewable energy- cannot be repaced
-fossil fuels such as coal,gas, crude oil and its products (petrol, diesel,kerosene and aviation fe
renewable- can be used over and over again

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