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Wilhelm II

The leader of Germany during WWI who was stubborn and was eager to show the rest of the world how powerful Germany had become.

imperialism

Increased competition between major European powers in Africa, A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Black Hand

Nationalist terrorist group that wanted a unified Serbian kingdom, the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary. (start of wwI)

Fourteen Points

President Wilson's plans for peace, the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria

Allies

France, Russia, Great Britain, United States, in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers

total war

All of a country's resources are used for victory

Gavrilo Princip

Assassinated the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, setting off World War I, Member of a terrorist organization called The Black Hand. Helped to end the optimistic Progressive era in America. Murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Wanted to set Bosnia free from Austria-Hungary

Somme

Viewed Austria-Hungary as a hostile enemy that prevented the creation of a larger Slavic kingdom, A five-month offensive between July and November 1916 in the Somme river area in France. It began with a massive week-long British artillery barrage that proved futile, since the Germans just sheltered in their dug-outs until the shelling stopped, then machine-gunned waves of British troops who were crossing no-man's land. On the first day alone the British lost 60,000 men. The battle ended in a stalemate, after torrential rain turned the trenches into a quagmire. There were more than 650,000 casualties on both sides, and although British had relieved the French at Verdun, they had only advanced about five miles.

Schlieffen Plan

Designed to defeat the French first and then attack Russia, Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

isolationist

Foreign policy of the US after World War I, concerning the belief that a country should take little or no part in foreign affairs, especially through alliances or wars.

mandates

Administered in Africa and the Middle East by Great Britain and France, a nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations

machine guns

The most deadly weapon in No Man's Land

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Eventually brought the U.S. into the war, Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the Bristish passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Bryan instructed to send memo to Germany, hesitant, but did. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Bryan refused to write 2nd note and resigned as Sec of State. Replaced by Robert Lansing who DID write 2nd note, and Germans pledged not to use USWarfare, civilians would be allowed to evacuate

militarism

The glorification of war and the maintenance of large armed forces, a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests

Article 231

Officially blamed Germany for the start of the war, This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.

armistice

Cease fire, an agreement to stop fighting

Gallipoli

Failed attempt by the Allies to open another front in the Balkans and supply Russia, A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.

self-determination

Allowing national groups to decide on their own form of government

Treaty of Versailles

Considered very unjust as a whole by the people of Germany, Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

Rationing

Limits on the amount of goods people can purchase during war

Mobilization

Military preparation for war, the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war

reparations

Payment for damages in the war, As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

propaganda

One-sided information put out by governments to retain public support of the war effort

Serbia

Costly Allied counter-offensive that gained very little territory, a historical region in central and northern Yugoslavia

League of Nations

Intended to be an international peacekeeping organization, International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed

No Man's Land

A strip of land beween the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WW1

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