An educated guess on how things will work.
A factor in the experiment.
A part of the test that you know will work.
Chains that are formed together by cells building
macromolecules by bonding small molecules.
To provide energy to all living things. Plants, some
animals, and other organisms for structure.
To store energy
Controls rate of reactions and regulated cell processes. In some organisms, it helps fight diseases.
Store and transmit hereditary information.
Which stores energy?
Lipids and Nucleic Acids
What stores the most energy?
Function of macromolecules
Transporting and containing other molecules in the body.
Simple tests of chemicals in food.
Benedict's Solution- Test for simple sugars- Carbs-Blue-> Green-> Yellow -> Brick Red
Iodine- Test for starch- Carbs Amber-> Purple -> Black
Brown paper- Test for fat- Lipid Opaque -> Translucent
Biuret Solution- Test for Protein Blue -> Purple
Organic vs. Inorganic
Inorganic has more chemicals.
Enzymes are catalysts
A body maintaining the same temperature according to the conditions.
Cells are specialized for the specific part of the body.
Cell Membrane-Regulates what goes in and out of a cell
Nucleus- Using DNA, it controls the cell's activities
Cytoplasm- Gel-like substance
Mitochondria- Powerhouse of the cell site of respiration
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Transportation network for the cell
Nucleolus- Manufactures ribosomes
Cytoskeleton- Interior framework
Cell Wall- Inflexible Provides support and shape Plants
Chloroplast-Contains chlorophyll Uses light energy from the sun
Cilia-Short hair like structures
Plastid-Stores starches and pigments
Vacuole-Stores water and food bigger in plant cells
Lysosome-Recycler for the cell
Flagella-Long whip like structures
Ribosomes-Where proteins get made Often found in ER
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic cells don't have DNA in the
nucleus, Eukaryotic cells do.
Plant vs. Animal Cells
Cell wall in plants
Hypertonic- When the concentration of fluid outside of the cell is greater then the concentration inside, causing the cell to diffuse out.
Hypotonic- When the concentration of fluid outside of the cell is less than the concentration inside.
Isotonic- When the concentration of fluid is equal inside and outside of the cell.
Turgor pressure- When the plasma membrane is pushed against the cell wall. The hypotonic condition causes it to increase.
Plasmolysis- When a plant cell is placed in a highly concentrated solution, water diffuses
out of the cell, and turgor pressure is lost causing the cell to become flaccid. Further loss
of water will result in plasmolysis, and finally to cytorrhysis, the complete collapse of cell
Cytolysis- when the cell membrane bursts
Occurs when substances move against the concentration gradient, requires energy and the aid of carrier proteins.
The role of ATP as the primary energy storage compound
A compound used by cells to store and release energy.
Energy from the sun is stored in chemical bonds
Which organelle helps in the process of photosynthesis?
Role of chlorophyll and the accessory pigments
Chlorophyll absorbs the light
Chromatography and pigment separation
Yellow Orange- Carotene
Grey- Decomposed chlorophyll
Dark Green- Chlorophyll A only non-accessory pigment
Light Green- Chlorophyll B
Fluorescence and chlorophyll
Red is emitted when light hits molecule
Process of photosynthesis
Light- Dependant Reaction
-Chlorophyll is energized
-Hydrogen is picked up by NADP
-Oxygen is released
Dark or Light- Independent Reaction or Calvin Cycle
-Carbon dioxide is combined with the intermediate
-Splits to form partial sugar
-Partial sugar combines with NADPH
Energy from glucose is released in order to do cell work- Done by both autotrophs and heterotrophs
Glycolysis- the anaerobic phase
How much ATP is released? 4
Where in the cell?- Cytoplasm
Kreb Cycle and Electron Transport chain- the aerobic phase
How much ATP is released?- 2
Where in the cell?- cytoplasm
When?- Cabbage and salt are mixed together in a crock. All the air escapes and no more is allowed in. Five weeks for complete fermentation.
Why?- Bacteria produces lactic acid from the lack of oxygen.
How much ATP?- 2
Define- Yellow is high power, magnifies 43 times. Green is low power, magnifies 10 times. Eyepiece magnifies 10 times.
Calculate- Magnified 430 times on high power, magnified 100 times on low power.
The ability of a microscope, telescope, or other optical instrument to produce separate images of closely placed objects.
How do you make a wet mount?
Take a glass slide and put the subject on it. Place a drop of water on the subject. Take a plastic slide and put it on the subject at a 45 degree angle. Tap out air bubbles.
What happens when you move the slide?
The subject moves the opposite direction it was moved.
Low Power vs. High Power
Low power is less magnified and high power is more.
Specialization in Living Things
Prokaryotic cell -> Eukaryotic cell organelles -> Tissues -> Organs -> Organ systems -> Organisms
What adaptations enable specialization?
The cell has an "on and off" switch to tell which parts are specialized.
Complementary base pairs A and T, G and C
When the DNA is copied
When the RNA is made into a complementary strand of DNA
How is RNA different from DNA?
RNA contains a ribose sugar that has oxygen
while DNA has deoxyribose sugar which does not have oxygen. DNA has the base Thymine, while RNA has the base Uracil. RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded in a double helix.
3 kinds of RNA
The messenger RNA carries the code into the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs.
The tRNA reads the code and carries the amino acid to be incorporated into the developing protein.
In the cytoplasm, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome.
Codons and anticodons
Each set of 3 bases on the mRNA is called a codon. Each codon calls for a specific amino acid to be brought to the building site. A tRNA with an anticodon that matches whichever codon is in place on the ribosome
Amino acid sequences and proteins
To form protein, the amino acids are linked
by dehydration synthesis to form peptide bonds. The chain of amino acids is also known
as a polypeptide.
A mutation is a change in DNA, the hereditary material of life. An organism's DNA affects how it looks, how it behaves, and its physiology. So a change in an organism's DNA can cause changes in all aspects of its life.
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis maintains the diploid number- in body (somatic) cells
Meiosis or reduction division creates the gametes with the haploid number
Homologous pairs have different sections of sequences
The phases of Mitosis
Interphase- The cell is growing the the first stage. In the second phase, DNA is being replicated. In the last phase, the cell is getting prepared for mitosis.
Prophase- The genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated
chromosomes become visible. A spindle starts to form outside the nucleus.
Metaphase- The centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle.
Anaphase- The chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to the opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase- The condensed chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.
The phases of Meiosis
Prophase 1- Each replicated chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome.
Metaphase 1- Paired homologous chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
Anaphase 1- Spindle fibers pull each homologous chromosome pair toward opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase 1- A nuclear membrane forms around each cluster of chromosomes.
Cytokinesis- Two new cells are formed.
Prophase 2- The chromosomes that have two chromatids are visible.
Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2, and Cytokinesis- These phases are similar to the phases in Meiosis 1 except 4 haploid daughter cells are formed.
Football shaped object the connect the chromosomes to the ends of the cell.
The centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids
Sister chromatids have the same sequence, same chromatids
Why cells can't get too big
Growth and Development
Squares that determine the genetic types of offspring
Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
Monohybrid cross is with one gene and a dihybrid cross is when there is more than 1 gene.
Dominant and recessive
A dominant gene is one where the gene is present can be noticed and a recessive gene is one where it's there, but can't be seen.
Codominance/ incomplete dominance
Codominance is when the contributions of both alleles (genes) are clearly visible. incomplete dominance is like a mix of the genes like red + white = pink
Multiple alleles: Blood types
Heterozygous. blood types are like if you get one
blood type from your mom and another from your dad, you get a mix.
Sex Linked traits
genes carried on the x chromosome.
PKU- Found in urine, 12th chromosome, diet to help fix
Sickle cell anemia and malaria- Hemoglobin, growth retardation, transfusion treatment
Hemophilia- No clot factor, males
Huntington's- chromosome 4, brain defect, midlife diagnosis
Tay Sachs- Chromosome 15, toxic buildup, Jews
CF- Chromosome 7, white people, epithelial cells
Aneuploidy: Monosomy, Trisomy
Monosomy is one copy of the gene and trisomy is three copies of a gene
How?- Separating all the chromosomes of a person into the different pairs
Why?- To see if there are any defects in the chromosomes
What is it?-There is variation in traits. There is differential reproduction. There is heredity.
How does it relate to mutations?- External influences can create mutations
What conditions cause evolution?
Natural selection, genetic drift, mutations, gene flow, and nonrandom mating
Populations not individuals evolve
What is a species?
A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus.
Every species has two names- binomial nomenclature
Each species is assigned a two part scientific name. Written in italics first word is capitalized and the second is not capitalized.
What is a human's kingdom chart?
Species- Homo sapiens
What criteria are used to classify organisms?
Evolutionary relationships and structural
similarities of organisms.
What are the classification groups?
Kingdom, ,Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Who gets classified with who?
Those organisms that are most closely related share the most classification groups
6CO2+ ^H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2