criminology

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basic human behavior and drives

traits theorist focus on_that are linked to antisocial behavior patterns

mesomorph

according to William Sheldon, who believed that criminals manifest distict physiques,which somatotype was most likely to become criminal

inheritance school

the study of generations of families believed tp have especially large number of criminal members is the

how social behaviors are learned and perceived

sociobiology differs from earlier theories of behavior in that it stresses that biological and genetic conditions affect

Physical conditions,environmental conditions, social conditions

biosocial theorist believe human behavior is produced by

Biophobia

the belief that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature is known as

equipotentiality

The belief that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve is known as

decreasing the amount of artificial colors and flavors present in the inmates food

A prison warden employs a biosocial theorist to develop a plan to reduce institutional violence.what major change might the biosocial theorist recommend?

hypoglycemia

A condition that occurs when glucose in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain functioning is known as

lead

a number of environmental contaminants have been associated with emotional and behavioral disorders.which of the following has been linked to aggressive behaviors on both a macro_or national level and on micro or individual level

the average blood lead decade

which of the following statements pertaining to the link between lead and crime is inaccurate?

Androgen

Biosocial theorist have evaluated the association between violent behavior episodes and hormone levels.Their findings suggest that abnormal levels of these male sex hormones influence the neocortex and have been linked to aggressive behavior

testosterone

it has been been argued that declining levels of what hormone cause the aging out process?

premenstrual syndrome

the onset of the menstrual cycle triggers excessive amounts of female sex hormones that affect antisocial,aggressive behavior.This condition is commonly referred to as

maternal rejection

Neurological deficits may interact w another trait or social condition to produce antisocial behaviors.Research conducted by rain found that children who experienced-were more likely to engage in criminal offending than children who dis not experience these factors.t

stratified

people in the united states live in what type of society

social disorganization theory,strain theory,and cultural deviance theory

what are the tree branches of social structure theory?

5%

the wealth concentration effect in a worldwide phenomenon.in the united states,the top_percent of households collect more than 50 percent of all house hold income,the most the in history

social class

segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable things and who share attitudes,values,norms,and and identifiable lifestyle are known as?

poverty during early childhood may have a more sever impact on behavior than poverty during adolescence or adulthood.what percent of American children live in poverty?

18

in 1966,oscar lewis argued that the crushing lifestyle of lower class area produce_which is are passed frm one generation to the next

a culture of poverty

members of the underclass whoare socially isolated,live in urban inner cities,occupy the bottom rung of the social ladder,and are the victims of discrimination are known as ?

the truly disadvantaged

a socially disorganizeed area is one in which the_have broken down and can no lonfer carry out their expected or stated functions

institutional of social control

social disorganization theory focuses on which of the following conditions in the urban environment

inadequate social control and deteriorated housing

social disorganization theory was popularized by the work of two chicago sociologists

McKay and Shaw

poverty ridden neighborhoods which suffer high rates of populayion turnover and are incapable of inducing residents to remain are known as

transitional neighborhoods

According to Shaw and Mckays statistical analysis,in which concentric zones were the highest rates of crime found

Zones 1 &11

The social disorganization concepts of Shaw and McKay were developed over 75 years ago.Which of their findings are still applicable today?

All the above

social ecologists known that people who report living in a neighborhoods w high levels of crime and civil disorder become suspicious and mistrusting.some residents become so suspicious that they develop a - in which the outside world is considered the enemy out to destroy their neighborhood.

Seige mentality

As communities undergo cycles of change,neighborhoods deterioration precedes increasing crime rates neighborhoods most at risk for crime rate increases contain

large numbers of single parented families and unrelated people living together owner occupied units

The process of human development and enculturation is known as

socialization

although members of lower class may have added burdens of poverty,racism ,poor schools,and disrupted family lives,these social forces may be counteracted by

all the above

children in homes where a parent suffers frm mental impairment are at risk for?

delinquency

Schools contribute to criminality when they

Label problem youth

Research indicates thats school dropouts,especially those who have been expelled, face significant chance of entering a criminal career. According to the Urban Institute, what percent of American students manage to graduate?

68 percent

In every level of the cocial structure, youths who fall in with a "bad crowd" become more susceptible to:

criminal behavior patterns

Social learning theory suggests that crime is a _ behavior

Learned

Whose name do we associate with the prominent learning theory of differential association?

Sutherland

A criticism of learning thoeries is that they fail to adequately explain?

Spontaneous acts of violence

Referring to differential association thoey, how does learning criminal behavior differ from learning other behavior?

There is no difference between learning criminal behavior and non-criminal behavior

Conflict theorist are concerned with which of the following?

All of these

Conflict theorists are concerned about the impact of globalization. Which of the following is not a globalization threat?

he improved standard of living in Third world nations

The view that the inter-group conflict and rivalry that exist in every society causes crime is known as?

Critical Criminology

In 1848, Karl Marx issued his famous?

Communist Manifesto

Productive forces include such things as

All of these

The relationship that exists among the people producing goods and services are known as?

Productive relations

Within Marxist thought, The owners of the means of production are called?

Capitalist bourgeoisie

Within Marxist thought, the people who perform the actual work are called

The Proletariat

In Marxist theory, what term refers to ones position in relation to others?

Class

The view held by Marx that the laboring class goods that exceed wages in value is known as?

Surplus Value

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