Nursing Theory and Theorists~10

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Theory

A principle that can explain the operation of a certain phenomenon, with considerable supporting evidence.

borrowed theories

Theories borrowed by one discipline from another discipline; previously the primary basis of nursing. An example of borrowed theory from physiology is Hans Selye's stress theory. Examples of theories that nurses use from psychology are Erik Erikson's developmental theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

worldview

A set of presuppositions or assumptions about the basic makeup of the world.

Virginia Henderson

An early nurse researcher educator best known for her coauthored Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing (1955), who focused her attention on physiological balance. Theory similar to Erickson's and Marlow's; taught that the patient is a person who requires help toward independence.

developmental needs theory

A theory that focuses on the person as a developmental being with needs that could be met by health care professionals, including nurses and physicians.

Hildegard Peplau

A nurse whose Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing (1952) focuses on developmental needs of patients but even more on interpersonal relationships by using a psychological model; worked on an interpersonal theory; described the nurse-client relationship.

interpersonal theory

A theory concerning interactions and interpersonal relationships; a common model of verbal interaction in psychology and psychiatry during the 1950s and 60s.

Phases of psychodynamic nursing model

orientation, identification, exploitation, resolution

Myra E. Levine

Best known for her development of four conservation principles, including the conservation of energy and the conservation of structural, personal, and social integrity.

thermodynamics

The branch of physics that is concerned with laws governing heat production, changes, and conversion into other types of energy.

lysaught report

A report by the National Commission for the Study of Nursing and Nursing Education that laid the groundwork for a greater emphasis on clinically oriented research with a strong theory base.

culture care

A theory designed to help nurses provide culturally congruent, competent, and safe care in a multicultural world.

Madeline Leininger

The first professional nurse to have a Ph.D. in cultural and social anthropology; developed culture care theory.

Dorothea Orem

Believed that life, health, and well-being are maintained by activities that people initiate on their own, such as breathing and eating; focused on nursing as a way to restore self-care in patients.

Sister Callista Roy

Focused on adaptation and believed that the goal of nursing was to promote adaptive responses.

adaptive response

Anything that has a positive influence on the health and well-being of people.

Imogene King

Developed the goal attainment model, which focused on three interacting systems: personal, interpersonal, and social.

systems theory

Assumes that all living systems are open systems that constantly exchange information with the environment.

Betty Neuman

Developed one of the most popular and widely used health systems theories.

Martha Rogers

A renowned and influential nursing theorist who is also controversial for her focus on energy-based practices such as therapeutic touching and Reiki; orginator of the theory of the science of unitary human beings.

science of unitary human beings

The theory that both people and the environment are energy fields.

Jean Watson

The former dean of the School of Nursing at the University of Colorado and founder of the Center for Human Caring at the University of Colorado; considers caring the essence of nursing practice. Wrote about humanistic transpersonal caring in Nursing: Human Science and Human Care; A Theory of Nursing (1985).

Judith Allen Shelly and Arlene B. Miller

Co-authors of Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing (2006), a textbook about caring from a Judeo-Christian perspective.

mid-range theory

Theories that are specifically focused, have fewer related concepts than more general theories, and are generally more testable in research and clinical practice.

theory of uncertainty

Mid-range theory used in nursing research and clinical practice; its assessment tool, the uncertainty in illness scale, is frequently used with cancer patients, originated by Merle Mishel

health promotion model

A mid-range theory that focuses on variables known to impact health behavior developed by Nola Penders

comfort theory

Recent theory being used as a basis for nursing practice and a foundation for nursing research; developed by Katherine Kolcaba.

How is nursing theory related to nursing practice?

Nursing theory guides and directs nursing practice. Nurses in practice settings are continually testing theory even though they may not be aware of it. Whenever nurses are engaged in any nursing activity, they are generally operating on the basis of a theory that what they are doing actually works.

primary theoretical components of nursing theory

Most comprehensive nursing theories include a set of assumptions about the nature of four basic components: (1) the human being, (2) the environment, (3) health and illness (or the health-illness continuum), and (4) nursing.

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