Chapter 8 Genetics

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Bacterial mutants that require additional nutrients in their growth media are called

auxotrophs.

The process of transferring DNA from one bacterium to another through a bacteriophage is

transduction.

Integrated, inactive phage DNA is called a

prophage.

HIV belongs to a class of viruses called

retroviruses.

Phages that always kill their host cell and never become an inactive prophage are called

virulent.

Infectious agents that are protein only, with no nucleic acid, are called

prions.

When the F integrates into the E. coli chromosome, the result is a(n) ______strain.

Hfr

Specialized transduction is used to map distances between phage genes.

false

Viruses can use the same DNA for more than one gene.

true

Plasmids do not have to integrate into the host cell chromosome in order to be replicated.

true

Interrupted conjugation results in the production of Hfr strains.

false

The order of gene transfer is not the same for different Hfr strains.

true

Antibiotic resistance can be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by conjugation.

true

E. coli bacteria are not naturally competent, but they can be transformed after treatment with calcium, heat, or an electrical field.

true

In a negative-strand RNA virus, the RNA carried by the virus is complementary to the RNA that will be used to translate viral proteins.

true

All retroviruses contain oncogenes.

false

If in one transduction experiment genes a and b cotransduce, and in another experiment genes b and c cotransduce, then gene b must be between genes a and c.

false

Bacterial cells containing an F plasmid that has acquired bacterial chromosomal genes are called

F′.

A bacterial cell transfers chromosomal genes to F- cells, but it rarely causes them to become F+. The bacterial cell is

Hfr.

The E. coli genome contains roughly

5,000,000 nucleotide pairs and 5000 genes.

leu- bacteria are mixed in a flask with leu+ bacteria, and soon all bacteria are leu+. However, if the leu- cells are on one side of a U-tube and the leu+ cells are on the other, the leu- cells do not become prototrophic. This suggests

conjugation.

Two different strains of a mutant phage infect a single bacterium. One phage strain is d- and the other is e-. Some of the progeny phages are genotype d+e+, and some are d-e-. What genetic phenomenon does this demonstrate?

recombination

Two different strains of a mutant phage infect a single bacterium. One phage strain is d-e+ and the other is d+e-. The coinfected phages produce the wild-type phenotype in the bacterium: one phage supplies the wild-type gene product from a d+ allele, and the other supplies the wild-type gene product from the e+ allele. What genetic phenomenon does this demonstrate?

complementation

What does the enzyme reverse transcriptase do?

Using RNA as a template, it makes a DNA molecule.

Cotransformation between two genes is more likely if they are:

close to one another.

Cholera is caused by a

bacterium that produces a toxin originally from an integrated virus.

You perform interrupted-mating experiments on three Hfr strains (A, B, and C). Genes are transferred (from last to first) in the following order from each strain: strain A, thi-his-gal-lac-pro; strain B, azi-leu-thr-thi-his; strain C, lac-gal-his-thi-thr. How are the F factors in these strains oriented?

A and B are cooriented.

A bacterium of genotype a+b+c+d+ is the donor in a cotransformation mapping. The recipient is a-b-c-d-. Data from the transformed cells are shown below. What is the order of the genes?
(a+ and b+ 2)
(a+ and c+ 0)
(a+ and d+ 5)
(b+ and c+ 5)
(b+ and d+ 0)
(c+ and d+ 0)

c b a d

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