The first opening in development, the blastopore, becomes the embryo's anus. Ex) Protochordates, chordates, echinoderms
Undergoes spiral cleavage, and the mouth forms before the anus.
a cavity in the mesoderm of an embryo that gives rise in humans to the pleural cavity and pericardial cavity and peritoneal cavity
The opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes
the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
the property of symmetry about an axis
arrangement of body parts so there are distinct left and right halves that mirror each other
an animal that lacks a coelom, or body cavity
coelom is actually a fluid-filled remnant of the blastocoel; ex: nematodes
Having two germ layers.
has three germ layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
Which inverts lack cephalization?
What characteristic is not found in radially symmetrical invertebrates?
1. No BILATERAL SYMMETRY
2. No backbone
What is the sequence in which major invertebrate features evolved?
3. Bilateral symmetry
4. Body cavity
What organism has a hydrostatic skeleton with a closed circulatory system and uses nephridia to remove nitrogenous waste?
external skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates
type of digestion in which food is digested inside specialized cells that pass nutrients to other cells by diffusion
What organism uses intracellular digestion?
digestive chamber with a single opening, in which cnidarians, flatworms, and echinoderms digest food
The organs through which food passes during the process of being digested. These include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Differences between Digestive tract and gastrovascular cavity
The digestive tract has two openings
What group of invertebrates uses gills for gas exchange?
Arthropoda; also used by echinodermata
What is required of a respiratory membrane?
It must be moist
Where does gas exchange happen in insects?
Open Circulatory System
A circulatory system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood ex. mollusks, arthropods
Closed Circulatory System
a circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying blood cells never leave the blood vessels. ex. vertebrates and earthworms
group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter
A vertebrate is any chordate that has ____
What kind of circulatory system does a fish have?
A closed loop circulatory system
Difference between endoderm and ectoderm
Inner layer of cells in the gastrula is the endoderm and it develops into the digestive organs; outer layer of cells is the ectoderm and it becomes the nervous tissue and skin
What group of vertebrates have a four chambered heart?
Warm-blooded animals. Endotherms
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Gas exchange in frogs?
On the surface of wrinkled skin
lower or hindmost part of the brain
Controls involuntary, automatic functions
(i.e. breathing, heart rate, blood pressure)
All mammals are warm blooded. Most young are born alive. They have hair or fur on their bodies. Every mammal is a vertebrate. All mammals have lungs to breathe air. Mammals feed milk to their babies.
What type of circulatory system does a mammal have?
Closed circulatory system
What part of a mammal's brain has a well developed cerebral cortex?
(Also known as gray matter)
an external abdominal pouch in most marsupials where newborn offspring are suckled
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
nitrogen bases A,T,G,C; deoxyribose, phosphate group
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Base pair rules
Thymine with Adenine. Guanine with Cytosine.
DNA and RNA difference
DNA contains deoxyribose sugar; RNA contains ribose sugar
RNA uses Uracil instead of Thymine
DNA is double stranded; RNA is single stranded
Types of RNA
messenger, ribosomal, transfer
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Central nervous system function
Integration, processing, coordination
transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
cell body - contains nucleus - regulates production of proteins within cell
dendrites - branched structures that extend from cell body, receive info anf transmit impulses
axons - transmit impulses away from cell body and toward another neuron, muscle cell, or glan
Smallest functional unit of nervous system
Sense organs are part of
Sensory system / nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
division that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body; includes all sensory and motor neurons; divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
What do ligaments and tendons attach to?
Ligaments attach bone to bone
Tendons attach muscle to bone
What is the function of the valves of the heart?
Prevent blood from flowing backwards
What organ regulates blood pressure?
What blood cells carry hemoglobin?
Red Blood cells
Structure for air and food
What controls breathing?
Lungs and heart and central nervous system
What's the food tube between the pharynx and the stomach?
Oxygen diffuses from the ____ to the _____
What passes waste to the rectum?
The large intestine
glomerulus, a Bowman's capsule, a proximal convoluted tubule, a distal convoluted tubule, and a collecting duct (tubule).
Kidney activity is controlled by
hormones and blood composition
Function of the endocrine system
Regulate body activity and responses to stimuli through the use of hormones
Produces sex hormones
Function of the adrenal gland
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, "Fight or Flight", balances salt and water concentration
How many ova do ovaries produce?
Structure that produces sperm
Function of memory B cells
secrete antibodies that bind to nametags on bad guys in specific immune response
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
Killer T cells