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October 1777

Surrender of British forces of General Burgoyne at Saratoga

1777

State constitutions written in 10 former colonies

1777-1778

Continental army encamped for the winter at Valley Forge

1778

French begin to assist American war efforts

March 1781

Articles of Confederation ratified

October 1781

Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown

1783

Signing of the Treaty of Paris

1786-1787

Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts

1787

Northwest Ordinance establishes regulations for settlement of territories west of the Appalachian Mountains

1787

Constitutional Convention ratifies US Constitution

1788

US Constitution ratified by states

1789

Washington sworn in as first president

1790

Hamilton issues plans proposing to protect infant US industries

1791

Establishment of First National Bank; Ratification of the Bill of Rights

1793

Democratic-Republican clubs begin to meet

1794

Whiskey Rebellion begins

1795

Jay's Treaty with England/Pinckney's Treaty with Spain

1796

John Adams elected president, Thomas Jefferson vice president

1798

XYZ Affair; Sedition Act of John Adams issued; Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

1800

Convention of 1800; Thomas Jefferson elected president in "Revolution of 1800"

1801

John Marshall named Chief Justice of Supreme Court; Alien and Sedition Acts not reviewed

1803

Louisiana Purchase; Marbury v. Madison established federal judicial review

1804

Alexander Hamilton killed in duel with Aaron Burr; Thomas Jefferson reelected; Twelfth Amendment ratified; Beginning of Lewis and Clark expedition

1807

Embargo Act greatly harms foreign trade

1808

James Madison elected president

1812

Beginning of the War of 1812

1814

British army sacks Washington; Treaty of Ghent formally ends the War of 1812; Indian removal from Southern territories begins in earnest

1814-1815

Hartford Convention (meeting of Federalists)

1815

Victory of Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans (after the War of 1812 was officially over); Henry Clay proposes the American System

1816

James Monroe elected president; Second Bank of United States chartered; Tariff of [year] imposes substantial import tariffs

1816-1823

Era of Good Feelings

1820

Missouri Compromise; Reelection of James Monroe

1790s

Beginning of Second Great Awakening

1819-1823

Panic of [year 1] (unemployment lasts until [year 2])

1820s

Growth of New England textile mills

1823

Monroe Doctrine

1824

Proposal by President Monroe to move Native Americans east of the Mississippi River

1825

John Quincy Adams elected president by House of Representatives (no candidate had won a majority in Electoral College)

1828

Andrew Jackson elected president

1830

Passage of Indian Removal Act in Congress

1830s

Growth of the Whig Party

January 1831

First issue of William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator published

March 1831

Cherokee nation goes to court to defend tribal rights in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

November 1832

Andrew Jackson reelected

1832

Nullification crisis after nullification of tariffs by South Carolina

1834

First strike of women textile workers in Lowell, Massachusetts

1836

Democrat Martin Van Buren elected president

1840

Whig William Henry Harrison elected president

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