Planet Earth for masters

39 terms by TCHAA 

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Minerals/the mohs hardness scale

This scale is a scale in which it tests how hard the rock is on a scale of 1-10

Minerals/Crystals

Crystals ocurr naturally, they have strait edges and flat sides but regular angles

Minerals/Lustre

The light-‐reflecting properties, or "shininess", of minerals

Minerals/Cleavage

Of a mineral, the characteristic of splitting along smooth, flat planes

Minerals/Streak

The colour of a mineral in powdered form; a property useful in the identification of minerals

Minerals/Fracture

The breaking of a mineral split into jagged, rough pieces where breakage is not controlled by cleavage

Minerals/Crust

The thin, outermost layer of the earth

Minerals/Element

A type of pure substance (made of one type of particle or atom) that cannot be broken down into smaller arts by chemical means and that has a unique set of properties

The Next Section Rocks

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Rocks/Igneous Rock

The type of rock that is formed by the solidification of hot magma; it is defined as either intrusive or extrusive

Rocks/Intrusive Rock

The type of igneous rock formed when magma cools and solidifies below earth's crust

Rocks/Extrusive Rock

The type of igneous rock formed when magma (lava) cools and solidifies above earth's crust

Rocks/Sedimentary Rock

The most common type of rock on earth's surface; formed by the compacting of sediment (loose materials, such as minerals and organic remains)

Rocks/Sediment

loose materials such as bits of rock, minerals, and plant and animal remains

Rocks/Magma

melted rock, formed under earth's crust by high temperature and pressure; magma occasionally escapes to earth's surface as lava

Rocks/Lava

The term used for magma when it breaks through earth's crust, as in a volcanic eruption

Rocks/Metamorphic Rock

A type of rock made when high pressure and heat act on another type of rock and change it into a new form

Rocks/Stratification

The arrangement of sedimentary rock in visible layers

Rocks/Compaction

The process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediment, through the weight and pressure of water and other sediment

Rocks/Cementation

A process by which particles are held together by another material

Rocks/Parent Rock

The mineral (non-‐organic) matter (rock, soil, clay) from which the soil developed

Rocks/Rock Cycle

The naturally occurring process in which rocks continue to change from over long periods of time

Rocks/Compost

The part of soil composed of dead plant matter

Rocks/Humus

The dark-‐coloured part of soil that is rich in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur

Rocks/Fertile

Of soil, containing the nutrients needed for plant growth

Rocks/Soil Profile

A description of the characteristics of the different layers that make up a particular soil

Rocks/Topsoil

The topmost layer layer of soil, which is dark-‐coloured and rich in humus

Rocks/Leaching

The process by which materials from soil are dissolved and carried away by water

Next Topic Erosion

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Erosion/Erosion

The process of moving soil and rock from one place to another; mechanical weathering caused by the effects of wind and/or water

Erosion/Weathering

The process in which rocks are broken down and sediment in formed by mechanical, chemical or biological weathering

Erosion/Frost Weathering

A process of mechanical weathering that occurs when water goes through a cycle of freezing and thawing; the water expands and contracts in the cracks of a rock, eventually breaking the rock apart

Erosion/Sedimentation

The process in which eroded materials in deposited and built up

Erosion/Chemical Weathering

The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the effects of chemical reactions upon them

Erosion/Biological Weathering

The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the physical or chemical effects of living organisms

Erosion/Abrasion

The wearing down of rocks by wind, ice, waves, and running water

Next Topic Plates/volcanos/Earthquakes

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Plates/Mantle

The middle layer of earth located between the crust and the core, and made of rock

Plates/Continental drift

A theory about earth's structure; according to this theory, the continents have slowly changed their positions over time; the slow movement of continents

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