Chapter 4 Integumentary & Endocrine Systems

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integumentary system & Endocrine system

The integumentary system consists of...

skin and glands found within the skin, hair, and nails

function of skin...

to protect, regulate temperature, serve as sensory receptor, and secrete sweat and sebum

what information can skin reveal?

warmth, coolness, erythema, cyanosis, elasticity and fullness

how many layers of skin, and the names?

3 - Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous tissue

epidermis - outemost layer of skin

-barrier from the outside, therefore is protective
-receptor for touch, - prevents water loss,
-synthesizes vitamin D

dermis

middle layer of skin

dermis contains?

sweat gland - secrete sweat
SC glands - secrete sebum, any oil/fatty substance
nerves and nerve endings
blood vessels

what does the dermis do?

-regulates temperature; -keeps skin oiled and elastic
-prevents dry scalp by producing sebum

subcutaneous tissue

innermost fatty layer, below the dermis layer

what does the SC tissue do?

-provide body fuel, retain heat, cushions innermost tissues

endocrine system is

series of ductless glands responsible for producing and regulating hormones

primary glands of the endocrine system

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, thymus, and pineal glands

--- and ---, play an important role in the endocrine system

ovaries and testes

primary role of the endocrine system...

work closely with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis

pituitary aka "master gland" is located at?

the base of the brain

what are the pituitary secretions controlled by?

hypothalamus

anterior lobe hormones

growth hormone, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

growth hormone

stimulates cell growth and reproduction

prolactin

women-promotes breast developement and milk production after childbirth
men- stimulates sex hormone production

TSH

controls secretion of thyroid gland hormones

ACTH

controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex

FSH

influences the reproductive organs; -men stimulates sperm prod.; -women stimulates estrogen prod.

LH

Females- stimulates ovulation
Men- stimulates testosterone secretion

psterior lobe hormones

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & oxytocin (OXT)

ADH

reduces excretion of the kidneys, may affect BP

OXT

causes uterine contractions and influences milk prod.

Thyroid gland location

in the anterior part of the neck

Thyroid gland hormones

thyroxine(T4), triiodothyronine(T3), calcitonin

T4 & T3

influences metabolism, protein synthesis, and maturation of the nervous system

calcitonin

decreases blood calcium and phosphate levels

adrenal gland location

at the top of each kidney

Adrenal medulla hormones

epinephrine, norpinephrine

epinephrine

stimulates sympathetic nervous system and increases heart rate; is a vasoconstrictor-increases BP and relaxes bronchioles

norepinephrine

stimulates the sympathetic nervous system

Adrenal cortex hormones

aldosterone, glucocorticoids/cortisol, androgens

aldosterone

helps conserve sodium and water in kidneys, and decreases potassium reabsorption

glucocorticoids/cortisol

influences protein, fat, and glucose metabolism
-influences blood glucose levels and has anti-inflammatory properties

androgens (sex hormones)

promotes sex characteristics and functions

parathyroid location

on posterior surface of the thyroid gland

parathormone (PTH)

works with calcitonon and increases blood calciul and decreases blood phosphate

pacreas location

behind stomach

islets of langerhans (w/i pancreas) secrete hormones

insulin and glucagon

insulin

regulates the transport of glucose to the cells; increase metabolism of carbs and decrease sugar

glocagon

stimulates release of glycogen from liver, promoting increased blood sugar

pineal gland location

third ventricle of the brain

pineal glan hormone

melatonin - regulates sleep-wake cycles

thymus location

behind sternum

thymus hormone

thymosin - affects lymphocyte production

ovarian hormones

estrogen, progesterone

estrogen

promotes secondary sexual characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle

progesterone

promotes secondary sexual characteristics and prepares the uterus for possible pregnancy

testicular hormones

testerone - promotes secondary sexual characteristics and functions in males

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