The integumentary system consists of...
skin and glands found within the skin, hair, and nails
function of skin...
to protect, regulate temperature, serve as sensory receptor, and secrete sweat and sebum
what information can skin reveal?
warmth, coolness, erythema, cyanosis, elasticity and fullness
how many layers of skin, and the names?
3 - Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous tissue
epidermis - outemost layer of skin
-barrier from the outside, therefore is protective
-receptor for touch, - prevents water loss,
-synthesizes vitamin D
middle layer of skin
sweat gland - secrete sweat
SC glands - secrete sebum, any oil/fatty substance
nerves and nerve endings
what does the dermis do?
-regulates temperature; -keeps skin oiled and elastic
-prevents dry scalp by producing sebum
innermost fatty layer, below the dermis layer
what does the SC tissue do?
-provide body fuel, retain heat, cushions innermost tissues
endocrine system is
series of ductless glands responsible for producing and regulating hormones
primary glands of the endocrine system
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, thymus, and pineal glands
--- and ---, play an important role in the endocrine system
ovaries and testes
primary role of the endocrine system...
work closely with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis
pituitary aka "master gland" is located at?
the base of the brain
what are the pituitary secretions controlled by?
anterior lobe hormones
growth hormone, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
stimulates cell growth and reproduction
women-promotes breast developement and milk production after childbirth
men- stimulates sex hormone production
controls secretion of thyroid gland hormones
controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex
influences the reproductive organs; -men stimulates sperm prod.; -women stimulates estrogen prod.
Females- stimulates ovulation
Men- stimulates testosterone secretion
psterior lobe hormones
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & oxytocin (OXT)
reduces excretion of the kidneys, may affect BP
causes uterine contractions and influences milk prod.
Thyroid gland location
in the anterior part of the neck
Thyroid gland hormones
thyroxine(T4), triiodothyronine(T3), calcitonin
T4 & T3
influences metabolism, protein synthesis, and maturation of the nervous system
decreases blood calcium and phosphate levels
adrenal gland location
at the top of each kidney
Adrenal medulla hormones
stimulates sympathetic nervous system and increases heart rate; is a vasoconstrictor-increases BP and relaxes bronchioles
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
Adrenal cortex hormones
aldosterone, glucocorticoids/cortisol, androgens
helps conserve sodium and water in kidneys, and decreases potassium reabsorption
influences protein, fat, and glucose metabolism
-influences blood glucose levels and has anti-inflammatory properties
androgens (sex hormones)
promotes sex characteristics and functions
on posterior surface of the thyroid gland
works with calcitonon and increases blood calciul and decreases blood phosphate
islets of langerhans (w/i pancreas) secrete hormones
insulin and glucagon
regulates the transport of glucose to the cells; increase metabolism of carbs and decrease sugar
stimulates release of glycogen from liver, promoting increased blood sugar
pineal gland location
third ventricle of the brain
pineal glan hormone
melatonin - regulates sleep-wake cycles
thymosin - affects lymphocyte production
promotes secondary sexual characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle
promotes secondary sexual characteristics and prepares the uterus for possible pregnancy
testerone - promotes secondary sexual characteristics and functions in males