help with reason and makes judgments. organizes information and controls some of the motor/muscle functions
in the left temporal lobe and deals with the processing of words that we hear being spoken [comprehension]
12 cranial nerves
1.olfactory- sense of smell
2. optic- vision
3. oculomotor- vision, eyelids and pupil dilation
4. trochlear- vision
5. trigeminal- face/mouth
6. abducent- vision
7. facial- face
8. vesibulocochlear- hearing/balance
9. glossopharyngeal- tongue/[pharynx
10. vagus- pharynx/ soft palate
11. accessory- neck and larynx
12. hypoglossal- tongue
cell are composed of
1. cell body- produces proteins needed for the construction of other parts of the neuron.
2. dendrites- carry signals toward the cell body
3. axon- carry signals away from the cell body
motor unit/muscle fiber- designed to produce a lot of force/movement very quickly [running/legs]
mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum
directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature, hunger, and homeostasis
midbrain- vision, hearing, eyemovement, and body movement.
medulla- breathing and heartrate
pons- It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis... for example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons
5 stages conceptualization
2. spatial- temporal planning
3. motor planning
an idea/purpose for an action
damages: dementia, confusion, deficits in message content
physically what muscles/structures does one need to use to get the sound out?
damage: apraxia of speech, dysarthria
going to send the signal out from nerves to muscles causing muscles to move
can't do motor movements on command [speech/non speech] mistakes are inconsistent
For example: cog,bog,log for the word dog. Mistakes are always a little bit different.
provides support and protection for the lungs, heart, and respiratory muscles.
2. ribs- 12 paired sets
4. vertebral column
composed of the manubrium which provides attachment for clavicle and first rib
corpus- provides attachment for ribs 2-10
xiphoid process- small extension on the lower part of the sternum. It consists of cartilage in the early years of life and becomes bony in nature in the adult human.
protects the heart
@ rest, ribs are angled down and during inhalation they can elevate to increase lung capacity
three general classes of ribs
true ribs: 1-7 direct attachment to sternum
false ribs: 8-10 connected to sternum through cartilaginous portion
floating ribs- 11-12 articulate only with vertebral column
the difference between the cervical and thoracic
it becomes thicker and bigger in a going down motion
the most important muscle for respiration [inhailing/exhaling] both! The diaphragm looks like an upside bowl its dome shaped. [at rest]
windpipe. a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air
Given a gas of constant temperature, as volume is increased, pressure will decrease
Use of muscular effort to force air out of the lungs beyond that which is expired in passive expiration
Relaxing of muscles used for inspiration. Driven by torque, elasticity, and gravit
Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV):
Volume of air that can be exhaled following passive, tidal expiration.
Total lung capacity (TLC):
The sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):
Amount of air in the lungs and airways at the end of a normal quiet exhalation.
is the state of equilibrium in the respiratory system. Occurs when the pressure in the alveoli equals atmospheric pressure.
Happens at the end of a quiet exhalation.
REL is also known as end-expiratory level
relaxation pressure curve
38% of vital capacity represents equilibrium or zero pressure.
Recoil pressures of tissues allow for expiration of ~ 55% VC.
After 55% VC, muscle of expiration are more active.