neurons in the body?
a bundle of neurons OUTSIDE of central nervous system [in the peripheral nervous system]
a bundle of neurons INSIDE of central nervous system
two types of neurons
1. motor- efferent
2. sensory- afferent
nerves can be both efferent/afferent @ the same time
the brain consists of
3. subcortical structures
4. cerebral hemispheres
two hemispheres in brain
1. left- logic
2. right- visual imagery
four lobes of brain
help with reason and makes judgments. organizes information and controls some of the motor/muscle functions
visual attention, sensation [touch and pressure]
controls hearing and are related to taste and smell
in the left frontal lobe and deals with the production of language [expression]
in the left temporal lobe and deals with the processing of words that we hear being spoken [comprehension]
provides the connection between the brain and peripheral nervous system
12 cranial nerves
1.olfactory- sense of smell
2. optic- vision
3. oculomotor- vision, eyelids and pupil dilation
4. trochlear- vision
5. trigeminal- face/mouth
6. abducent- vision
7. facial- face
8. vesibulocochlear- hearing/balance
9. glossopharyngeal- tongue/[pharynx
10. vagus- pharynx/ soft palate
11. accessory- neck and larynx
12. hypoglossal- tongue
cell are composed of
1. cell body- produces proteins needed for the construction of other parts of the neuron.
2. dendrites- carry signals toward the cell body
3. axon- carry signals away from the cell body
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
connects the central nervous system to the limbs and organs
gather information of the environment and send it to the brain
tell muscles to contract, therefore making you move.
motor unit/muscle fiber- designed to produce a lot of force/movement very quickly [running/legs]
downside of the fast twitch
they fatigue/get tired very easily
designed for a more constant use [muscles used for posture/hold our heads up all day]
both of the twitches many muscles are mixed [legs: running slower and faster]
Control circuits/ subcortical structures
basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system
mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum
directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature, hunger, and homeostasis
midbrain- vision, hearing, eyemovement, and body movement.
medulla- breathing and heartrate
pons- It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis... for example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons
movement, posture, and balance.
5 stages conceptualization
2. spatial- temporal planning
3. motor planning
an idea/purpose for an action
damages: dementia, confusion, deficits in message content
spatial- temporal planning
planning to express
physically what muscles/structures does one need to use to get the sound out?
damage: apraxia of speech, dysarthria
going to send the signal out from nerves to muscles causing muscles to move
a response to the action made
can't do motor movements on command [speech/non speech] mistakes are inconsistent
For example: cog,bog,log for the word dog. Mistakes are always a little bit different.
someone who had a stroke with a right or left side paralysis [articulating problems]
provides support and protection for the lungs, heart, and respiratory muscles.
2. ribs- 12 paired sets
4. vertebral column
composed of the manubrium which provides attachment for clavicle and first rib
corpus- provides attachment for ribs 2-10
xiphoid process- small extension on the lower part of the sternum. It consists of cartilage in the early years of life and becomes bony in nature in the adult human.
protects the heart
@ rest, ribs are angled down and during inhalation they can elevate to increase lung capacity
three general classes of ribs
true ribs: 1-7 direct attachment to sternum
false ribs: 8-10 connected to sternum through cartilaginous portion
floating ribs- 11-12 articulate only with vertebral column
collar bone- provides a place of connection for accessory muscles of respiration
regions of the spine
neck region of spine = c1-c7
connection for legs and vertebral column
the difference between the cervical and thoracic
it becomes thicker and bigger in a going down motion
the most important muscle for respiration [inhailing/exhaling] both! The diaphragm looks like an upside bowl its dome shaped. [at rest]
Assist during inhalation
Assist during exhalation
windpipe. a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air
air filled sacs
Given a gas of constant temperature, as volume is increased, pressure will decrease
Inspiration is always an active process
quiet breathing [involuntary]
uses of the diaphragm
speech [more voluntary]
uses of different muscles
Use of muscular effort to force air out of the lungs beyond that which is expired in passive expiration
Relaxing of muscles used for inspiration. Driven by torque, elasticity, and gravit
active [diaphragm and external intercostals]
Inhalation [tidal quiet]
refers to ribs
Tidal volume (TV):
Volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration.
Residual Volume (RV):
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV):
Volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration.
Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV):
Volume of air that can be exhaled following passive, tidal expiration.
Vital capacity (VC):
The volume of air that can be inhaled following a maximal exhalation.
Total lung capacity (TLC):
The sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):
Amount of air in the lungs and airways at the end of a normal quiet exhalation.
is the state of equilibrium in the respiratory system. Occurs when the pressure in the alveoli equals atmospheric pressure.
Happens at the end of a quiet exhalation.
REL is also known as end-expiratory level
relaxation pressure curve
38% of vital capacity represents equilibrium or zero pressure.
Recoil pressures of tissues allow for expiration of ~ 55% VC.
After 55% VC, muscle of expiration are more active.
used to measure air pressure
measures air flow