Psychology -- Middle Childhood

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myopia

near sightedness -- the vision problem most common

otitis media

middle ear infection -- becomes slightly less common but is still an issue

obesity

body weight of 20% greater than what is normal for the individual's age, sex, and physical build -- rates have risen significantly in children and adults since the mid 70's due to use of high fructose corn syrup and high fat foods

asthma

the most common illness

flexibility

more pliable and elastic than preschoolers; differences noticeable when swinging a bat, kicking a ball, jumping, etc.

balance

increased stability improves athletic skills such as running, hopping, skipping, throwing, kicking, etc.

agility

quicker and more accurate movements are possible and facilitate dancing, dodging, soccer footwork, etc.

force

children can throw and kick harder and faster, jump further and higher

writing

becomes more clear and is expanding, but still uses whole arm as opposed to the wrist

drawing

more detail and depth cues, 3D images become apparent

physical education

children are not getting enough -- need at least 30 minutes of moderate to intense activity and an hour of walking

rough and tumble play

friendly chasing and play-fighting

dominance hierarchy

a stable ordering of group members that predicts wo will win when conflict arises

concrete operational

Piaget's stage for children aged 7-11 that is characterized by increased logical thougt and organization

operations

mental actions that obey logical rules

decentration

focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather that just centering on one -- can see the dynamic transference that occurs when transferring liquids, etc.

reversibility

capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentall reverse direction, returning to the starting point

classification

ability to think in terms of categories is improving as our knowledge of the world is expanding

seriation

ability to order things along a quantitative dimension (Ex: fewest to largest, shortest to tallest, etc.)

transitive inference

ability to seriate mentally (Ex: Bob is older than Susan, and Susan is older than John, Is Bob older than John?"

spatial reasoning

gaining a more accurate understanding of space -- able to think in 3D terms, navigate directions, read maps, rotate figure in our minds, etc.

cognitive maps

children's mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces, such as the neighborhood or school

selective

attention becomes more _________ as children are able to focus on the information that is relative to their goals

adaptable

attention becomes more _______ as children will focus on what they have to learn, instead of what they already know

planful

attention becomes more _____ as children focus on what is most important to do in order to accomplish their goals

rehearsal

repeating the information to ones's self; common memory strategy in early grade school

organization

grouping related items together; common memory strategy in early grade school and improves as our knowledge base expands

elaboration

creting a relationship or shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category -- memory strategy where we can remember lists by making a story that is personally meaningful

whole language approach

reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning -- from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language -- expose them to letters, poetry, stories, songs, etc. to teach that language has a function and value

basic skills approach

children are given simplified reading material and coached with phonics

phonics

the basic fundamental rules for translating written symbols into sounds

drills

mathematical principle focused on the the repitition of numeric skills

number sense

mathemtical principle focued on problem solving and understanding the concepts of numbers

grammar

technical rules of language -- ability to use tenses and the passive voice is evident

pragmatics

the communicative and social side of language -- ability to adjust to people and situations, and phrase requests to get what we want is evident

vocabulary

increases four-fold during school yeras, learning up to 20 new words a day

bilingual

type of development where children learn two languages at the same time and are able to do so fluently -- offers cognitive advantages including greater cognitive flexibility

immersion

type of language program where english speaking children are taught entirely in French for several years

semi-lingual

occurs where the skills in both language are not fluenty developed -- common in minority children who lose their first language as it is not fully developed and have trouble fully learning the new language

mainstreaming

student with learning difficulties are placed in the regular classrooms for part of the school day to prepare them to participate in society and encourage optimal development with same-aged peers

full-inclusion

placement of children with learning disabilities in the regular classroom on a fulltime basis

mental retardation

people wit IQ's between 55 and 70 who show problems in adaptive behavior, or skills of everyday living

learning disability

people who have great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, often reading -- as a result, their achievement is often considerably behind what would be expected for their IQ

gifted

displaying exceptional intellectual strengths; tend to have an IQ of over 130

talent

outstanding performance in a specific field

creativity

ability to produce work that is original, yet appropriate -- something others may not have thought of but that is useful in some way

divergent thinking

the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem (creativity)

convergent thinking

involves arriving at a single correct answer -- this thought process is emphasized on IQ tests

industry vs inferiority

Erikson's crisis for middle childhood that is resolved when children develop competence at useful skills and tasks

industry

developing a sense of competence at useful skills -- school should provide many opportunities for this to develop

inferiority

pessimism and lack of confidence in one's own ability todo things well -- family and school can contribute to negative feelings if they dispay negative responses to child's work and behavior

self-concept

judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behaviors, in relation to those of others -- kid's will ask: "Do I measure up?" -- also called the "me-self"

ideal-self and real-self

children may begin to see discrepancies between what others expect of you (the ______-self) and who they really are (the _____-self) -- high overlap results in high self-esteem while low overlap results in low self-esteem and feelings of depression and sadness

self-esteem

how children feel about themselves is linked to different domains including school performance, athletic activities, physical appearance, and social status -- it is hierarchically structured, meaning that children place the areas they value most at the top -- tends to drop in the first few years of school and then rise as children find who they are in relation to their social circle

attributions

our common, everyday explanations for the causes of our behavior; whether we attribute our successes and failures to internal or external factors

mastery oriented

type of attribution where we credit succes to ability and failure is due to controllable factors (putting in more effort) -- linked to higher self-esteem

learned helplessness

type of attribution in which failure is due to abilit, and success is due to luck or other external factors -- individual sees ability as fixed and cannot be changed through effort

self-conscious emotions

children no longer need adults to help us feel pride and guilt because parental standards have been introjected more fully -- we know when we should feel pride or guilt

emotional self-regulation

children learn to manage negative emotions that threaten their self-esteem and in order to keep peer approval

emotional self-efficacy

knowledge that we can control our own emotions increases

emotional understanding

understanding that emotions can be connectedto internal stages and that we can experience more than one emotion at once

peer groups

groups that form similar values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers -- usually formed by people in the same grade, class, or neighborhood, based on proximity and similarity

peer culture

the developmnt and adoption of a specialized vocablarly, dress code, hang-out place and appropriate behaviors that continues throughout life

perspective taking

capacity to imagine what other people may be thinkng and feeling

distributive justice

beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly

strict equality

everyone gets the exact same amount (5-6 years)

merit

rewards should go to someone who has worked hard or performed in an exceptional way (6-7 years)

equity and benevolence

special consideration should be given to those at a disadvantage and adapt "fairness" to the situation (8 years)

peer acceptance

refers to likeability -- the extent to which a child is vieed by a group of agemates, as a worthy social partner

popular

child has many positive votes

rejected

child is actively disliked

controversial

child receives many votes, both positive and negative

neglected

child is seldom chosen at all

popular-prosocial

child displays a combination of academic and social competencies, good in school and cooperative with others

popular-antisocial

include "tough kids" who are athletic but may be poor academically or who may cause trouble and defy authority

rejected-aggressive

child who has high rates of conflict, physicaland relational aggression, is hypeactive, inattentive and has impulisive behaviors

rejected-withdrawn

child is characterized by social anxiety, and have negative expectations about how peers will treat them -- targets for bullies

coregulation

transitional form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-to-moment decision making

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