Geography

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50 terms · Long answers only, terms and such @JenRuks.

What was the attitude towards fishing for centuries? Why was it important that fishing was considered to be a renewable resource?

it was a good source of income, each year the fish would reproduce and there would be more fish to catch next season.

Canadians do not eat much fish. Why is this important?

it means most of our fish is exported to other countries.

What helps to bring the nutrients that are necessary for the growth of plankton?

ocean currents churn up the rich sediments and decaying plant and animal matter at the bottom of the ocean and bring them closer to the surface.

What two dramatic things did the Canadian government do in response to the east coast fishing collapse of 1991?

gave fisherman money every month and placed a limit to how much fish could be caught.

How did uncontrolled foreign fishing affect the east coast fishing industry?

the foreigners caught all the fish (cod) that the local fishermen depended on which left them fishless and with no income which in turn lost some of their jobs.

What has happened to ocean water temperatures and ocean salt levels since the mid 1980's? How have these two things affected fish living patters?

water temperature and salinity levels have increased so much that the fish are changing their migaratory routes. Now moving more north.

Summarize how fish farms are bad for fishermen of wild salmon.

bad because they exploit the fish so that there are none left for the fishermen to catch. *moretothis

Canada's fishing industry is at a crossroads. Name two reasons why changes much be made.

we could lose a very valuable food source and people would lose their jobs.

What are GMO's? Why is this type of technology considered to be controversial?

genetically modified organisms (transgenic) , controversial because the genes could sink into the gene-pool where it could possibly create "supers".

Summarize the two parts of what determines the fertility of soil.

amount of humus which contains important nutrients and the amount or quality of the decaying plany material.

Why are soils not very fertile in very dry and very wet conditions?

in very dry climates there is not enough water for the plants to thrive. in very wet conditions the important nutrients and minerals get "leeched" out of the soil.

Four characteristics that create "perfect farming conditions".

- flat land
- nutrient abundant soil
- the right amount of water
- mild temperature

Name four ways how farmers have to deal with harmful insects.

- pesticides
- GMO's
- cropping methods
- introduce predator insects

What are two benefits of using transgenic organisms?

they produce more and grow faster, create plants that are resistant to diseases.

Summarize the major fear that GMO critics have about transgenic crops.

- crops will produce super bugs that cannot be killed
- the genes will sink into the gene-pool
- without competition these insects will explode

Name three reasons why some areas of the world have little to no agriculture.

- temperature is too cold or warm
- landscapes in the way
- not enough water or good soil

What are the three most important natural factors that affect the type of farming that can be done in a specific region?

- temperature
- amount of rainfall/water
- landforms
- soil fertility

Summarize the three economic factors that have an impact on what type of farming will take place in specific region.

- cost
- transportation of goods
- competition

Summarize how a farming co-operative works.

a farmer farms land that a larger company owns, the farmer sells them what he grows and gets paid by the company, they own shares, pool money and share equipment.

How is soil a renewable resource? What has happened to soil over the past century?

renewable resource because if used properly you can re-use it the next year over the past century the soil has gotten less fertile because it was not used properly.

What is contour ploughing? Why is it done in Atlantic Canada?

when you plough across the hill so the rainwater doesn't wash all of the topsoil away. this is done in Atlantic Canada because they get alot of rain.

What is sustainable agriculture? How is this related to crop rotation?

where you produce a crop without harm to the enviroment.

How does the mixed forest region compare to the Boreal Forest region (in terms of growing season and precipitation)?

mixed forest region has a longer growing season with more precipitation than the Boreal Forest region.

What has allowed for the growth of hardwood tress? What are these trees used for?

longer growing season and good precipitation. these trees are used for lumber, flooring and furniture.

What happens when the clear-cut area is replanted? Why is this important?

all the trees grow up uniformaly in size, this is important because they can clear cut again when all the trees have grown to a certain height.

Describe the relationship between Canada and the US when it comes to production in the pulp and paper mill industry.

Canada is the worlds 2nd highest pulp and paper coming after the US, who buy more than 50% of or exports.

How do federal and provincial governments help the mining industry?

set up taxes to fund the exploration for mining and create new mining methods.

How was uranium initially used, and how is it used today?

initially used to make the atomic bomb but is now used for electricity.

All three types of minerals are found in the Atlantic Maritime ecozone. What does this tell you about the kind of rocks found in this region?

the area saw all types of geological structures and underwent alot of change (volcanoes, folding) this area is very old.

Where do the minerals mined in Canada go? What does that mean to Canada economically?

most minerals are exported, 50% goes right to the US before milling, or smelting. This means Canada is very involved in the worlds economy but also means we are exporting jobs as well.

What is a major drawback to living in a minging town?

If the mine gets shut down the town will have no way to survive.

Named two countries where diamonds are mined. Where does Canada rank in the diamond business?

Russia and South Africa, Canada ranks 6th.

Why are only 100 of the 5000 known kimberlite pipes mined?

lots of them are hard to find due to the fact that they are covered by lakes or they are too deap.

Why is it so difficult to find kimberlite pipes on the surface of the earth?

many are covered by lakes.

What were two important findings about the diamonds at the Ekati mines?

quality and quantity was very high also open pit mining could be used because they were close to the surface.

The First Nations people were consulted about the development of the Ekati mines. What two specific agreements were made?

their land would not be disturbed other than what was needed and they got a little profit also with minimal enviromental damage.

How are the Ekati mines different from the other mines in Canada?

most in depth enviromental assemsent.

What have some experts suggested about Canada's diamond industry?

by 2020 we will have 50% of the world's diamond market.

When it comes to energy consumption, why are Canadians considered to be the "fat cats" of the world?

we all consume a large amount of energy because it comes easy to us, we tend to waste it.

What three types of energy sources do Canadians rely on the most?

hydro-electricity, nuclear and thermal (oil, natural gas and coal).

Summarize the steps of how oil and gas are created over a period of millions of years.

decaying plant matter and animals create a layer that is then covered by many layers of silt, sand or clay. These sediments apply so much pressure and heat that the matter changes state, this takes hundreds of years.

What is the difference between flowing wells and non-flowing wells?

flowing wells can be piped easily by using the natural flow of them, lots of pressure, while non-flowing wells mich have pumps and a series of different pipes, not so much pressure.

What impact could a better secondary recovery method have?

could recover almost all of the "missed" oil

What is the difference between conventional crude oil and synthetic crude oil?

conventional crude oil is very thick and natural and is pumped directly from the ground while synthetic crude oil flows easier and is partly man made out of "oil sands".

Summarize two advantages of using hydro-electricity.

cheap to run and the resvoirs can be used for recreational purposes ; renewable resource ; no air polution.

Summarize two disadvantages of using hydro electricity.

plants are costily to build and low lying areas are flooded.

Summarize two advantages of using thermal electricity.

no fossil fuels, relativly cheap to build, transmission lines are shorter.

Summarize two disadvantages of using thermal electricity.

non-renewable and causes acid rain.

Summarize two advantages of using nuclear electricity.

low transmission cost and operating cost.

Summarize two disadvatages of using nuclear energy.

dangerous, non-renewable, high construction cost.

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