U.S. History Final

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Bella Final

Missouri Compromise

1820 compromise that split the north and south into free and non-free states

Kansas-Nebraska Act

created by Stephen A. Douglas to establish the Kansas and Nebraska territories as a sake of railroad promotion; inflamed sectional passions and thwarted his own ambitions for national office; gave birth to the Republican party; ended Whig party; damaged northern Democrat support; conflicted with Missouri Compromise (compromise no longer in effect if settlers could establish slavery there); left decisions of slavery up to the people living in those territories; spawned hatred and violence

Bleeding Kansas

term for the effect of Kansas-Nebraska Act that spawned hatred and violence; resembled war- free-soilers held unauthorized convention where they created their own government and constitution; battles over land claim; John Brown's raid; Sumner-Brooks Affair; country was becoming polarized

Compromise of 1850

package of 5 bills passed in 1850 between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories mentioned in the Missouri Compromise

Fugitive Slave Act

act passed by Congress in 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850; heightened Northern fears of a "slave power conspiracy"; declared that all runaway slaves be brought back to their masters

Dred Scott

sued for his freedom after living a free life; Supreme Court ruled against him in 1857 and said he could not sue because slaves are not citizens

Popular Sovereignty

the right of people to decide for themselves if slavery should be established in their territory

John Brown

abolitionist and anti-slavery zealot who executed the Raid on Harper's Ferry with the intention of arming slaves and starting a revolt; saw himself as God's instrument to destroy slavery; murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers

Raid On Harpers Ferry

1859 raid led by abolitionist John Brown who captured an arsenal that was located in Harper's Ferry, Virginia

Lincoln/Douglas

Lincoln believed that in terms of slavery it's either all or nothing and that one side would win over the other and that a country cannot stand when the government is split; Douglas supported popular sovereignty, but described that abolitionists could stop slavery by creating police regulations and electing legislature

Stephen Douglass

ran for president against Lincoln; democrat; believed white Americans were superior; tolerated slavery and believed that it was the right of white citizens to choose the kind of society/gov't they wanted; won the Illinois election of 1858

Uncle Tom's Cabin

book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that transformed American ideas on slavery

Abraham Lincoln-

republican nominee of 1858; served on the house of rep; defended the compromise of 1850; believed in even fugitive slave law and wanted to confine slavery; takes a moderate approach rather than a strong stance so chances in election are higher

Election of 1860

democratic split; Stephen Douglas as northern democrat candidate and John C. Breakenridge as southern democratic candidate (current VP under Buchanan, wanted to expand slavery); Lincoln as republican candidate; John Bell as constitutional party; south is outraged when Lincoln was elected without a single southern vote; this proved that the south never had the electoral votes to elect a southern candidate; beginning of the secession of the south

Crittenden Compromise

"last ditch plan"; Dec. 18 1860; Amendment to protest slavery while absolutely limiting its spread (permanent reestablishment of the Missouri Compromise line)

Border States

bordered northern and southern states

Battle of Ft. Sumter

(Confederate Victory) General Beauregard (Fed) demanded the Union army to surrender. After they refused to do so the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter, causing Major Anderson (Union) to surrender and evacuate. There were no casualties during the bombardment. This battle was the first encounter of the American Civil War.

Jefferson Davis

provisional president

Anaconda Plan

Union plan of attack; used to blockade the entire southern coast line, seize the control of the miss river to cut off the south from the west, further divide the south, capture the capitol Richmond

Robert E. Lee

Commander of the Confederate Army

Antietam

(Union Victory) The Battle of Antietam began when McClellan confronted Lee's Army at Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle was the bloodiest battle of American history.

Emancipation Proclamation

Order issued by Abraham Lincoln that freed all slaves in the states in rebellion (Confederate/Southern states)

Gettysburg Address

Speech given by Abraham Lincoln, which discussed the principles of human equality and referenced back to the Declaration of Independence. It changed the views of the war by promoting America's democracy.

Advantages/Disadvantages of the North and South

SOUTH: (advantages) better marksmen, home territory, better generals; (disadvantages) smaller population, no factories, economy reliant on north, less centralized government, limited provisions, anaconda plan; NORTH: (advantages) larger population, more factories/industries, more/better provisions; (disadvantages) soldiers not as well trained, invasion force/fighting on unfamiliar territory

Surrender at Appomattox Station

(Union) The battle at Appomattox Court House was the last attempt by General Robert E. Lee to escape and defeat the Union Army. The Confederates advanced, however when the Union infantry arrived the Confederates were at a loss and Lee surrendered. The battle at Appomattox Court House was the last engagement of the war in Virginia.

Copperheads

northerners who opposed the Civil War; considered traitors because they favored immediate peace with the Confederacy; named after the poisonous snake which gives no warning before it strikes

Conscription

legal name for the draft during the Civil War

Draft Riots

(1862) rioters attacked the draft office in Port Washington and vandalized the homes of Union supporters, until troops arrived to quell the disturbance; a mob of protesters shut down the draft proceedings in Milwaukee; in West Bend, the draft commissioner was beaten bloody and chased from the scene; result of the military draft that President Lincoln instituted

John Wilkes Booth

confederate supporter who assassinated President Lincoln during a play at the Fords theatre

10% Plan

part of Lincoln's reconstruction plan; 10 percent of those registered to vote in 1860 had to take a loyalty oath to the Union and accept emancipation

Wade- Davis Bill

An 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy; Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.

Andrew Johnson

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

Impeachment

a citizen demands for an official to be taken or thrown out of office

Tenure of Office Act

(1866) enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet

Radical Republicans

One of the Congressional Republicans who wanted to destroy the political power of slaveholders and to give African Americans citizenship and the right to vote

Freedman's Bureau

(1865) Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.

Sharecropping

System of farming in which people (mostly blacks) would farm the land for an owner; very similar to slavery

Carpetbaggers

A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states.

Scalawags

Name given to Southerners, often Unionists, accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence.

Black Codes

Codes in the south used to limit the rights of African Americans immediately after their emancipation.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws in the South that discriminated against blacks

1. Ku Klux Klan

A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 in Pulaski, TN that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.

2. 13th Amendment

slavery was abolished

3. 14th Amendment

Gave blacks citizenship

4. 15th Amendment

Gave blacks the right to vote

5. Compromise of 1877

Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.

6. Ulysses S. Grant

an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

7. Greenbacks

money used during the war; NOT backed by gold or silver

2. Homestead Act (1862)

Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

3. Pacific Railway Act (1862

(1862) legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)

4. Credit Mobilier

(1872) Union Pacific Railway created a fictitious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) - scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock

8. Dawes Severalty Act

An act that removed Indian land from tribal possession, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.

11. Battle of Wounded Knee

Last major conflict between the Sioux Indians and the United States. 300 Indian men, women and children were killed, while 25 American soldiers died in the conflict.

13. Barbed Wire

invented by Joseph Glidden; fenced in the west to make sure their cattle were their cattle; invented to keep out animals

2. Incandescent Light Bulb

invented by Thomas Edison

3. Telephone

invented by Alexander Graham Bell; opened the way for a worldwide communication system

5. Bessemer Process

Process to purify steel; In a Bessemer converter, a blast of high-pressure air oxidizes impurities in molten iron and converts it to steel

6. Monopolies

total control of a type of industry by one person or one company

7. Vertical Integration

Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution

8. Horizontal Integration

Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller

9. Andrew Carnegie

A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

10. John D. Rockefeller

Entrepreneur behind the Standard Oil Company which, through his aggressive business tactics such as vertical integration, the trust, and the holding company, grew to control 90 to 95 percent of the oil refining in the country; made a fortune which he then distributed among causes such as education and medicine, becoming the world's leading philanthropist.

11. US Steel

The largest steel company of the US, created by J.P. Morgan by merging Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel and several other steel companies together; at the time, the largest corporation in existence.

12. Standard Oil Trust

Established by Rockefeller, Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911.

13. Social Darwinism

Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.

14. Robber Barron

a business leader who became wealthy through dishonest methods

16. Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Law passed by Congress in 1890 that outlawed any companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce

17. Labor Unions

(1866) The first attempt at a nation union, fell apart after 10 years. Women were excluded.

18. Knights of Labor

(1869) established in Philidalphia - suppose to be a secrete faternal order - first union to allow all laborers

19. American Federation of Labor

The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886.

20. Haymarket Riot

A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.

21. Pullman Strike

(1894) railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (a court order to stop something) to prevent the strike.

23. Graft

the use of one's job to gain profit; no consideration for workers

24. Hayes

Compromise of 1877-Ends Reconstruction

25. Stalwarts

Republican in the 1870s who supported Ulysses Grant and Roscoe Conkling; they accepted machine politics and the spoils system and were challenged by other Republicans called Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform.

26. Garfield

20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage

27. Arthur

pushed for the Pendleton Service Act

28. Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes.

30. McKinley

A Republican firmly committed to the gold standard

31. Civil Service Reform

Forced candidates to some sort of government job to pass an exam. Prevented officials from firing employees for political reasons.

33. Panic of 1893

everything failed, unemployment tripled, homelessness. Coxey's Army; unemployed who marched on Washington demanding relief, received laissez-faire response

34. Populism (populist/people's party)-

(1891) formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)

2. Alfred Thayer Mahan

Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy

3. Richard Olney

played a significant role in mediating the boundary dispute between Venezuela and the British colony of Guyana

6. Jingoism

extreme patriotism, esp. in the form of aggressive or warlike foreign policy

7. Yellow Journalism

Term for sensationalized journalism - started the Spanish-American War

8. Spanish-American War

(1898) America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism

9. De Lome Letter

a stolen letter from the Spanish Ambassador ridiculing pres. McKinley; intensifies anti- Spanish feelings

10. USS Maine

this ship exploded and the Spanish were blamed

11. Philippines

where the Spanish-American war started

14. Rough Riders

First US volunteer cavalry; composed of cowboys, Indians, other Wild West types, and Ivy League athletes and aristocratic sportsmen from the East; shipped out to Cuba from Tampa

19. Anti-Imperialist League

founded in 1899, after the United States occupied Cuba and Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, in order to campaign, unsuccessfully as it turned out, against the annexation of the Philippines

20. Platt Amendment (1901)

Specified when the US could intervene in Cuban affairs

21. John Hay

In 1898 Hay was named Secretary of State and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris. He adopted the open door policy in China

22. Panama Canal

shortened the distance between the East Coast of the US and these markets to the west; Roosevelt was leading advocate

23. Roosevelt Corollary

Added to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 by Roosevelt; said that the U.S. could intervene, if necessary, to stabilize the economies of countries in Central America and the Caribbean

24. William H. Taft

27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930)

25. Dollar Diplomacy

U.S. foreign policy created by Taft to ensure financial stability in a region in exchange for favorable treatment of U.S. commercial interests and extend its international influence

26. Open Door Policy

the policy of granting equal trade opportunities to all countries

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