Xylem (water & minerals), Pholem (sugars)
Seeds superior to spores
Seeds contain a young plant, are protected by a seed coat, and contain nourishment.
Production of one kind of spore in bryophytes, most club mosses, most ferns including whisk ferns and horsetails.
Production of two kinds of spores (microspores and megaspores) in some club mosses and ferns, in all seed plants.
__________ produce seeds borne naked, while flowering plants produce seeds enclosed within a fruit.
Medicinal uses, Gnetum, Welwitschia
Cycads (Sago Palm), dioecious w/ motile sperm.
Ginkgo is only species, dioecious.
Pine, spruce, Fir, monoecious, resins, lumber, medicine, pollen disseminated primarily by wind.
-Earth's dominant plants.
-Reproduce sexually by forming flowers; have double fertilization; and form seeds within fruits.
-Fruit protects developing seeds and aids in dispersal.
-Vascular plants; they have vessel elements in their xylem and sieve tube elements in their phloem.
Having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals.
Having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal.
-Herbaceous plants with long, narrow leaves that have parallel veins.
-Flower parts usually occur in threes.
-Seeds have a single cotyledon.
-Endosperm is usually present in the mature seed.
-Examples: Palms, grasses, orchids, irises, onions, and lilies
-May be herbaceous or woody.
-Leaves are broader than monocot leaves, with netted veins.
-Flower parts occur in multiples of fours or fives.
-Seeds have two cotyledons.
-Endosperm is usually absent in the mature seed.
-Examples: Oaks, roses, mustards, cacti, blueberries, and sunflowers.
Flowers are reproductive shoots composed of four parts (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels) arranged in whorls on the end of a flower stalk.
-The whorl inside the petals.
-The center whorl of most flowers.
-Closed "female" reproductive organs, bearing ovules that develop into seeds.
-May be separate (simple) or fused into a single structure (compound).
A flower that has all four parts is _______.
________ lacks one or more parts.
A flower with both stamens and carpels is __________.
_______ has stamens or carpels, but not both.
-Make up the lowermost and outermost whorl.
-Cover and protect other flower parts in buds.
All sepals of a flower make up the ______.
-The whorl inside the sepals.
-Bright colors attract animal pollinators to the flower.
All petals of a flower make up the _____.
Each stamen has a thin stalk.
Saclike _____ where meiosis occurs and microspores develop into pollen grains.
The female part of the flower, consisting of one or more carpels, is also called a ______.
Each _____ has three sections.
A ______ on which the pollen grain lands.
A _____ through which the pollen tube grows.
An ______ that contains one or more ovules.
Each ovule contains a female gametophyte that forms one female gamete, two ______, and other haploid cells.
After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed - the ovary develops into a fruit.
Each young ovule in an ovary contains a megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell) that undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid _____.
One divides mitotically and develops into a mature female gametophyte (_______) containing seven cells (an egg cell, a central cell with two polar nuclei, and five other cells that disintegrate).
Each pollen sac (microsporangium) of the anther contains many microsporocytes (microspore mother cells), each of which undergoes meiosis to form four haploid _____.
Every microspore develops into an immature male gametophyte (_______) consisting of two cells, the tube cell and the generative cell.
A variety of agents (wind, water, insects, and other animal pollinators) transfer _______ to the stigma.
One sperm cell fuses with the egg, forming a zygote that grows by mitosis and develops into a multicellular embryo in the seed.
The second sperm cell fuses with the two haploid polar nuclei of the central cell to form a triploid (3n) cell that grows by mitosis and develops into endosperm.
As a seed develops from an ovule, the ovary wall surrounding it enlarges and develops into a _____.
Double fertilization occurs, resulting in diploid zygote and _____.