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Abbasid

The dynasty that came after the Umayyads

Abu Bakr

first caliph after death of muhammad

Ali

Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the caliphs; focus for the development of Shi'ism.

Al-jabor

established by Al-gorism: Algebra

Allah

The Arabic word for God

Avicenna

also known as Ibn Sina, wrote a medical encyclopedia

Baghdad

Abbasid Capital

Caliph

a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government

Crusades

A series of holy wars from undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.

Dome of the Rock

Muslim shrine containing the rock from which. Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock

Fatwa

religious commandment Muslims must follow

Gabriel

the angle who was the messenger of God

Hadith

A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca

Hegira

Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina

Hijab

a headscarf worn by Muslim women

Ibn Rushd

Helped reintroduce Europe to Greek works of Philosophy

Imam

Muslim prayer leader

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Followers are called Muslims.

Jerusalem

sacred city of Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

Jihad

struggle in the way of god

Ka'aba

a stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine

Khadija

Muhammad's wife

Minaret

tower used to call Muslims to prayer

Mecca

birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

Medina

the second holiest city; where Muhammad lived after fleeing Mecca

Mosque

Muslim house of worship

Muhammad

Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam

Muslim

a believer or follower of Islam

Qur'an

the holy book of islam

Ramadan

ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting

Salat

the second pillar of Islam is prayer 5x a day

Sawm

the third pillar of Islam is fasting (primarily during the month of Ramadan)

Shahada

1st pillar of Islam Declaration of faith

Shari'a

Islamic Law

Sheikh

the leader of an Arab village or family

Shi'ite

A member of the branch of Islam that supports the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors

Sunni

a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad

Sura

one of the sections (or chapters) in the Koran

Twelver

One of three branches of Shiism. Belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders. 85% of Shi'a are Twelvers.

Umayyad

the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus

Umma

Muslim community

Zakat

the fourth pillar of Islam is charity

Omar Kayyam

Famous Muslim scholar and astronomer

Muezzin

person who calls Muslims for religious services

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