Test Guide Unit 1--Nature and Purpose of Geography

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Test prep for Unit 1 Test

Geography

Study of the earth's human and physical characteristics

Human Geography

Study of the earth's human (cultural) characteristics

Physical Geography

Study of the earth's physical (natural or environmental) characteristics

Class Rule

Students will solve their own problems (with the guidance of the teacher)

Cornell Notetaking

Notetaking strategy using a larger margin to summarize key ideas

Benefit of Cornell Notetaking

Saves you time because you only need to read over your notes once

SQ4R

Reading strategy using questions ahead of time before reading

Benefit of SQ4R

Helps you learn more because your brain is actively looking for information while reading

Location

Theme describing where something is on the planet

Place

Theme describing the unique characteristics of an area

Region

Theme describing how different areas are unified by a shared common characteristic

Human-Environment Interaction

Theme describing how humans affect, and are affected by, their natural environment

Movement

Theme describing how and why people, goods, ideas, etc. move

Benefits of Using Maps

Shows the whole earth at once, and can show a variety of topics at a variety of scales

Benefits of Using Globes

Accurately represent the sizes, shapes, distances, and directions of the earth

Scale

Shows the relationship between distance on a map and distance in the real world

Title

Tells you what the map is about

Latitude

Lines that measure how far north or south something is from the Equator

Longitude

Lines that measure how far east or west something is from the Prime Meridian

Topographic map

Reference map that shows elevation

Cartogram

Thematic map that uses distortion to tell a story

Remote Sensing

Aerial photography and satellite images of the earth

GIS

Computer-based mapping system

Subduction

Two plates collide (converge), with one diving below the other

Rifting

Two plates pull apart or are pushed apart (diverge)

Weathering

Rock is altered or broken mechanically or chemically

Erosion

Rock is moved by wind, water, or ice

Temperate Grassland or Mixed Forest

Illinois' natural vegetation

Humid Continental

Illinois' natural climate

Subarctic Climate

Northern Canada and Northern Russia natural climate

Coniferous Forest

Northern Canada and Northern Russia natural vegetation

Tropical Wet Climate

Equatorial climate

Tropical Rainforest

Broadleaf evergreen vegetation found around the equator

Culture

Total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of a group of people

Cultural Diffusion

Spread of cultural traits and ideas

Christianity

Largest world religion; based on the teachings of Jesus

Islam

Second largest world religion; based on the teachings of Muhammad

Buddhism

World religion; offshoot of Hinduism based on right living to achieve nirvana; mostly found in Asia

7 Billion

Total world population

Population Pyramid

Diagram of the age and gender structure of a country's population

Language Family

Group of related languages

Monarchy

Type of government headed by a king or queen

Democracy

Type of government where citizens hold political power

Communism

Political and economic system where the government controls power and production in the name of the people (collectively/communally)

Megalopolis

Urban area where large cities have grown together to form a giant urban area

Near Water

Location of most major world cities

Market Economy

Production of goods and services is determined by demand and supply

Command Economy

Production of goods and services is determined by the government

Primary Activities

Jobs gathering raw materials; farming, fishing, mining, etc.

Secondary Activities

Jobs in manufacturing or adding value to materials by changing their form

Tertiary Activities

Jobs providing business or professional services

Renewable Natural Resources

Resources that are replaced naturally faster than humans use them

Non-Renewable Natural Resources

Resources that humans use faster than nature replaces them

Gross Domestic Product

Measure of economic development

Plate Tectonics

Theory that earth's crust is made of giant, moving sections

El Nino

Condition in the Pacific Ocean that affects climate patterns worldwide

Polytheism

Belief in more than one god

Monotheism

Belief in one god

Urbanization

Growth and development of cities

Hinduism

Polytheistic religion, one of the world's oldest major religions, found mostly in South Asia (India)

Strike-Slip

Plate boundary where two plate slide along next to each other; San Andreas fault for example

Humid Subtropical

Florida mainly has this type of climate

Geographic Question

"Where will Mr. Hoffman be when he makes fun of my low test score on Tuesday?"

Population Density

Measure of how crowded a region or country is

Natural Increase

Birth rate - Death Rate in a country or region

Non-Renewable Natural Resource

Oil

Renewable Natural Resource

Palm Trees

Carrying Capacity

Number of people an area of land can support

High Density Regions

Europe, South Asia, East Asia, Northeast USA

Ring of Fire

Region of earthquakes and volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean

Tropic of Capricorn

Line of latitude at 23.5 degrees South

Population Growth Rate

Birth rate - Death Rate + Immigration - Emigration in a country or region

Tropic of Cancer

Line of latitude at 23.5 degrees North

Equator

0 degrees latitiude

Prime Meridian

0 degrees longitude

Factors that influence climate

Latitude, elevation, wind and ocean currents, topography

Functions of cities

Transportation hubs, distribution centers, entertainment centers

Population Pyramid

Diagram that shows the age and gender of a country's population

Demographic Transition Model

4 (or 5) stage diagram showing how population in a country changes over time

Stages 2 and 3

Stages of the Demographic Transition Model where population grows rapidly

Stage 1

Stage of the Demographic Transition Model where population is low, and birth and death rates are high

Stage 4

Stage of the Demographic Transition Model where population is high, and birth and death rates are low

Expansive (fast growing)

A population pyramid with a wide base has a population that is this

Stable

A population pyramid with a column shape (relatively straight up and down) has a population that is this

Constrictive (decreasing)

A population pyramid with a very small base has a population that is this

Stage 5

Stage of the Demographic Transition Model where population is decreasing

Lots of old people, good health care, wealthy

Characteristics of a country with a population pyramid shaped like a column (relatively straight up and down)

Lots of young people, poor health care, not so wealthy

Characteristics of a country with a population pyramid shaped like a pyramid with a wide base

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