CHAPTER 2- Chemical Composition of the Body

105 terms by karlakarlakarla Plus

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acid

molecule capable of releasing a H+ ; solution having an H+ concentration greater than that of pure water (pH less than 7)

acidic solution

any solution with a pH less than 7

acidity

concentration of free, unbound hydrogen ion in a solution; the higher the H+ concentration, the greater the acidity

adenine

one of the four bases making up DNA; also a breakdown product of ATP used as a neurotransmitter

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

two-phosphate product of ATP breakdown

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

nucleotide that transfers energy from metabolism to cell functions during its breakdown to ADP and release of Pi

alkaline solution

any solution having [H+] lower than that of pure water (pH greater than 7)

alpha helix

coiled regions of proteins or DNA formed by Hydrogen bonds

amino acid

molecule containing amino group, carboxyl group, and side chain attached to a carbon atom; molecular subunit of protein

amino acid side chain

the variable portions of amino acids; may contain acidic or basic charged regions, or may be hydrophobic

amino group

--NH2; ionizes to NH3

amphipathic

a molecule containing polar or ionized groups at one end and nonpolar groups at the other...

anion

negatively charged ion

atom

smallest unit of matter that has unique chemical characteristics; has no net charge

atomic nucleus

dense region, consisting of [protons and neutrons, at center of atom...

atomic number

number of protons in nucleus of atom

atomic weight

value that indicates an atom's mass relative to mass of other types of atoms based on assignment of a value of 12 to carbon atom...

base

any molecule that can combine with H+

beta pleated sheet

a form of secondary protein structure determined by the relative hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains

carbohydrate

substance composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen according to general formula Cn(H2O)n

carboxyl group

--COOH; ionizes to carboxyl ion (--COO-)

cation

ion having net positive charge...

chemical element

specific type of atom...

concentration

amount of solute per unit volume of solution

conformation

3D shape of a molecule...

covalent bond

chemical bond between two atoms in which each atom shares one of its electrons with the other...

cytosine

pyrimidine base in DNA and RNA

dehydration

type of chemical reaction in which two smaller molecules, such as amino acids, are joined to form a larger molecule; a single molecule of water is lost in the process...

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

nucleic acid that stores and transmits genetic information; consists of double strand of nucleotide subunits that contain deoxyribose...

deoxyribose

a ribose molecule with a single hydroxyl group removed; a component of DNA

disaccharide

carbohydrate molecule composed of two monosaccharides

disulfide bond

R-S-S-R...

electrolyte

substance that dissociates into ions when in aqueous solution...

electron

subatomic particle that carries one unit of negative charge...

electronegativity

measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons in a covalent bond...

fatty acid

carbon chain with carboxyl group at one end through which chain can be linked to glycerol to form triglyceride...

free radical

...atom that has an unpaired electron in its outermost orbital; molecule containing such an atom

glucose

major monosaccharide in the body; a six-carbon sugar, C6H12O6...

glycerol

three-carbon carbohydrate; forms backbone of triglyceride...

glycogen

highly branched polysaccharide composed of glucose subunits; major carbohydrate storage form in body...

glycoprotein

protein containing covalently linked carbohydrates

gram atomic mass

amount of element in grams equal to the numerical value of its atomic weight...

guanine

purine base in DNA and RNA

hexose

any six-carbon sugar, such as glucose...

hydrogen bond

weak chemical bond between two molecules or parts of the same molecule in which negative region of one polarized substance is electrostatically attracted to a positively charged region of polarized hydrogen atom in the other

hydrolysis

breaking of chemical bond with addition of elements of water (-H and -OH) to the products formed; aka hydrolytic reaction

hydrophilic

attracted to, and easily dissoved in, water

hydrophobic

not attracted to, and insoluble in, water

hydroxyl group

-OH

ion

atom or small molecule containing unequal number of electrons and protons and therefore carrying a net positive or negative electrical charge

ionic bond

strong electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions

isotope

an atom consisting of one or more additional neutrons than protons in its nucleus

lipid

molecule composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen and characterized by insolubility in water

macromolecule

large organic molecule composed of up to thousands of atoms, such as a protein or polysaccharide

mole

the amount of the compound in grams equal to its molecular weight

molecular weight

sum of atomic weights of all atoms

molecule

chemical substance formed by linking atoms together

monosaccharide

carbohydrate consisting of one sugar molecule, which generally contains five or six carbon atoms

monounsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid, such as oleic acid, in which one carbon-carbon double bond is formed within the hydrocarbon chain due to the removal of two hydrogen atoms

multimeric protein

a protein in which two or more proteins are associated via hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic attractions, and other forces, to yield a single, larger protein

mutation

any change in base sequence of DNA that changes genetic information

neutral solution

a solution that is neither basic nor acidic (pH= 7)

neutron

noncharged component of the nuin moleculecleus of an atom

nonpolar covalent bond

a bond between two atoms of similar electronegativities

nonpolar molecule

any molecule with characteristics that favor solubility in oil and decreased solubility in water

nucleic acid

nucleotide polymer in which phosphate of one nucleotide is linked to the sugar of the adjacent one; stores and transmits genetic information; includes DNA and RNA

nucleotide

molecular subunit of nucleic acid; purine or pyrimidine base, sugar, and phsosphate

pentose

any five-carbon monosaccharide

peptide

short polypeptide chain; by convention , having fewer than about 50 amino acids

peptide bond

polar covalent chemical bond joining the amino and carboxyl groups of two amino acids; forms protein backbone

pH

expression of a solution's acidity;

phospholipid

lipid subclass similar to triglyceride except that a phosphate group (--PO4 ^2-) and small nitrogen-containing molecule are attached to third hydroxyl group of glycerol; major component of cell membranes

polar covalent bond

covalent chemical bond in which two electrosn are shared unequally between two atoms of different electronegativites

polar molecule

pertaining to molecule or region of molecule containing polar covalent bonds or ionized groups

polymer

large molecule formed by linking together smaller similar subunits

polypeptide

polyer consisting of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds; aka peptide

polysaccharide

large carbohydrate formed by linking monosaccharide subunits together

polyunsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid that contains more than one double bond

primary structure

the amino acid sequence of a protein

protein

large polymer consisting of one or more sequences of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds to form a functional molecule with multiple levels of structure

proton

positively charged subatomic particle

purine

double-ring, nitrogen-containing subunit of nucleotide; adenine or guanine

pyrimidine

single-ring, nitrogen-containing subunit of nucleotide; cytosine, thymine, or uracil

quaternary structure

formed when two or more proteins associate with each other by hydrogen bonds and other forces

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

single-stranded nucleic acid involved in transcription of genetic information and translation of that information into protein structure; contains the sugar ribose

ribose

the sugar backbone of RNA

saturated fatty acid

fatty acid whose carbon atoms are all linked by single covalent bonds

secondary structure

the alpha-helical and beta pleated structures of a protein

solute

substances dissolved in a liquid

solution

liquid (solvent) containing dissolved substances (solutes)

solvent

liquid in which substances are dissolved

steroid

lipid subclass; molecule consists of four interconnected carbon rings to which polar groups may be attached

strong acid

acid that inonized completely to form hydrogen ions corresponding anions when dissolved in water

sucrose

disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose

tertiary structure

the 3D folded structure of a protein formed by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic attractions, electrostatic interactions and cysteine cross-bridges

thymine

pyrimidine base in DNA but not RNA

trace element

mineral present in body in extremely small quantities

trans fatty acid

an unsatturated fatty acid in which the H atoms around a carbon:carbon double bond are distributed in a trans orientation (on the same side); implicated in a variety of negative health consequences

triglyceride

subclass of lipids composed of glycerol and three fatty acids

unsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid containing one or more double bonds

uracil

pyrimidine base; present in RNA but not DNA

van der Waals forces

weak forces between atoms and molecule due to transient electrical forces generated by the orbits of electrons in the outer energy shells of atoms

weak acid

acid whose molecule do not completely ionize to form hydrogen ions when dissolved in wwater

sickle-cell disease

a mutation in the gene for the beta subunits of hemoglobin result. in the replacement of a single glutamic acid residue with one of valine. glutatmic acid has a charged, polar side grou, whereas valine ahs a nonpolar side group. the nonpolar groups causes many hemoglobin molecule to bond with each other.

sickle-cell trait

individuals with sickle-cell trait (SCT) have one normal inherited form one parent and one gene with a mutation inherited from the other parent

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