liver failure , bilirubin builds up toxic creating yellow pigment
the subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin made up of mostly adipose tissue
stores fat, anchors the skin, and acts as a shock absorber
What is the function of the hypodermis?
the outer layer of the skin made up of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
epidermal cell that produces keratin
the fibrous protein that makes skin waterproof and keeps it strong, also found in hair and nails
epidermal cell that produces the brown piment melanin
epidermal cell that acts as a macrophage to activate our immune system to destroy foreign substances
deepest epidermal layer made of a single row of cells that undergo rapid cell division
epidermal cell functions as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
What are the three regions of the skin?
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
List the 5 layers of the epidermis in order from the superficial to deepest layer.
Which layer of the epidermis is found only in thick skin?
Which layer of the epidermis consists of a single row of cells where rapid cell division occurs?
Which layer of the epidermis is made up of a weblike system of intermediate filaments with flattened keratinocytes that appear "spiny"
Which layer of the epidermis consists of three to five cell layers with keratinocytes that accumulate granules that form keratin and lipids that provide waterproofing
papillary and reticular
What are the two layers of the dermis?
What are the peglike projections on the superior surface of the dermis that indent the overlying epidermis?
cell deep in the dermis that is
capable of detecting pressure
sensitive touch receptors in the dermis
pigment that ranges in color from yellow to reddish-brown to black that is produced when the skin is exposed to sunlight
yellow to orange pigment that is most obvious in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
A condition that occurs when hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated causing the skin to appear blue
eccrine (merocrine) sweat gland
produces true sweat; abundant on the palms of hand, soles of the feet, and forehead
apocrine sweat glands
produce true sweat plus fatty substances and proteins; found in the axillary (armpit) and anogenital areas of the body
modified apocrine glands found in the lining of the external ear canal; produce sticky, bitter substance called cerumen (earwax)
specialized sweat glands that secrete milk
What stimulates sebum production?
an active inflammation of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pimples on the skin
Hair on scalp protects from physical trauma, heat loss, sunburn; eyelashes shield eyes; nose hairs filter particles in the air
What is the function of hair?
shaft and root
What are the chief regions of the hair?
The portion of the hair that projects beyond the skin
is the part of, the part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the skin
vellus and terminal
What are the two types of hair?
fine hair found on children and adult female soft hair around lips and on face
coarse, long hair found on the head, eyebrows, axillary and genital areas: growth stimulated by male sex hormones
hair thinning and balding
scalelike modification of the epidermis that forms a clear protective covering on the dorsal surface of a finger or toe
Regulates body temperature; Produces Vitamin D; Protection from chemical and physical injury: Blood reservoir; Excretion of nitrogenous wastes
What are the functions of the skin?
basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma
What are the three types of skin cancer?
basal cell carcinoma
the least malignant and most common type of skin cancer
the most dangerous skin cancer
red marrow blood (histamine)
tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or certain chemicals, which denature proteins and cause cell death
first degree burn
involves only epithelium; redness, heat (i.e. sunburn)
second degree burn
destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis; characterized by pain, blisters, swelling, and discoloration.
third degree burn
destroys epidermis and dermis, appear leathery and dark, no pain, insensitivity to pain due to nerve damage; fluid loss & increased risk of infection due to damage of protective barrier
rule of nines
method used to calculate the amount of fluid lost as the result of a burn; divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body area