chapter 7 words

104 terms by ll7993 

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alveol/o

alveolus (air sac)

bronch/o

bronchus (airway)

bronchi/o

bronchus (airway)

bronchiol/o

bronchiole (little airway)

capn/o

carbon dioxide

carb/o

carbon dioxide

laryng/o

larynx (voice box)

lob/o

lobe (a portion)

nas/o

nose

rhin/o

nose

or/o

mouth

ox/o

oxygen

palat/o

palate

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

phren/o

diaphragm (also mind)

pleur/o

pleura (lining of lungs)

pneum/o

Air, lung

pneumon/o

air, lung

pulmon/o

lung

sinus/o

sinus (cavity)

spir/o

breathing

thorac/o

chest

pector/o

chest

steth/o

chest

tonsill/o

tonsil

trache/o

trachea (windpipe)

uvul/o

uvula

-pnea

breathing

nose

structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respitory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell

sinuses

air-filled spaces in the skill that open into the nasal cavity

palate

roof of the mouth; partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate

pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

larynx

voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

trachea

windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left bronchi

bronchial tree

branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli

lungs

two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration

lobes

subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right

diaphragm

muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down

mucous membranes

thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid

eupnea

normal breathing

bradypnea

slow breathing

tachypnea

fast breathing

hypopnea

shallow breathing

hyperpnea

deep breathing

dyspnea

Difficulty breathing

apnea

inability to breathe

orthopnea

ability to breathe only in an upright position

cyanosis

bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

epistaxis

nosebleed (epi = upon; stazo = to drip)

expectoration

coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs

sputum

material expelled from the lungs by coughing

hyperventilation

excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia

hypoventilation

deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia

hypoxemia

deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

hypoxia

deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells

rhinorrhea

thin, watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)

asthma

panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough

atelectasis

collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele = imperfect; -ectasis = expansion or dilation)

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

bronchogenic carcinoma

lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi

bronchospasm

constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle

emphysema

obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

pyothorax

accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

blood in the pleural cavity

pneumonia

inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals

pneumothorax

air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall

pneumohemothorax

air and blood in the pleural cavity

pulmonary embolism

occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot

sinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses

sleep apnea

periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring

tonsilitis

acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils

upper respiratory infection

infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi

endoscopy

examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes`

bronchoscopy

use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways

nasopharyngoscopy

use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers

examination methods

techniques used during physical examination to objectively evaluate the respiratory system

auscultation

to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds

percussion

physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest

lung biopsy

removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination

radiology

x-ray imaging

chest x-ray

x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms identify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph:
PA (posterior-anterior) = from back to front
AP (anterior-posterior) = from front to back
lateral = toward the side (left lateral)

computed tomography

CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses

pulmonary angiography

x-ray imaging of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of contrast material

lobectomy

removal of a lobe of a lung

pneumonectomy

removal of an entire lung

thoracentesis

puncture for aspiration of the chest (pleural cavity)

thoracoplasty

repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs

thoracostomy

creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube

thoracotomy

incision into the chest

tonsillectomy

excision of the palatine tonsils

tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

excision of the tonsils and adenoids

tracheostomy

creation of an opening in the trachea, most often to insert a tube

tracheotomy

incision into the trachea

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital organs when breathing and the heart have stopped

endotracheal intubation

passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs

antibiotic

a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms

anticoagulant

a drugs that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels

antihistamine

drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine

histamine

a compound in the body that is released by injured cells during allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on, causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels

bronchodilator

drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi

expectorant

drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing

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